Pre-Diluvian Civilizations

& Theories of Catastrophism

Fable - from Latin Fabula meaning that which happened in the past, but not an invention.

Aurobindo on Science

Our vision of "prehistory" is terribly inadequate. We have not yet rid our minds from the hold of a one-and-only God or one-and-only Book, and now a one-and-only Science - Sri Aurobindo

Deliberate Obscuration

Archaeology has been used as a tool for intellectually dominating the subjugated nations and minorities. During the colonial period the history of the colonized nations was perceived in such a way as to relegate them in various ways to the static backwaters of human development. In this sense the interpretation of the archaeological data from these nations or colonized areas was the direct handmaiden of the political reality of the period. This plank was laid down at the height of Western political hegemony over India, and the fact that this still has been left in its place speaks a volume for the post-1947 pattern of the retention of Western dominance in various forms - Dilip K Chakrabarti (Archaeologist, Historian, and author of Colonial Indology)

The Feathered Serpent

Much later Montezuma arrived with a company of kinsmen and chieftains. He indicated a low bench richly embroidered in gold, and asked Cortes to be seated. Nearby stood the interpreter Cortes had acquired shortly after landing: the beauteous and intelligent Marina, who spoke both Maya and Aztec and who, as Cortes' mistress, had quickly learned Spanish. Montezuma seated himself near Cortes and began to speak:

"Long time have we been informed by the writings of our ancestors," said Montezuma, "that neither myself nor any of those who inhabit this land are natives of it, but rather strangers who have come to it from foreign parts. We likewise know that from those parts our nation was led by a certain lord (to whom all were subject), and who then went back to his native land, where he remained so long delaying his return that at this coming those whom he had left had married the women of the land and had many children by them and had built themselves cities in which they lived, so that they would in no wise return to their own land nor acknowledge him as lord; upon which he left them.

And we have always believed that among his descendants one would surely come to subject this land and us as rightful vassals. Now seeing the regions from which you say you come, which is from where the sun rises, and the news you tell us of this great king and ruler who sent you hither, we believe and hold it certain that he is our natural lord: especially in that you say he has long had knowledge of us.

"Wherefore," Montezuma concluded, "be certain that we will obey you and hold you as lord in place of that great lord of whom you speak, in which service there shall be neither slackness nor deceit: and throughout all the land, that is to say all that I rule, you may command anything you desire, and it shall be obeyed and done, and all that we have is at your will and pleasure."

This is the note on which the account should end. But history has a sly way of being anticlimactic. Not all of the warlike Aztecs shared Montezuma's views-views that he literally stood up for, was stoned by his own people and died for. The trail of Cortes was long and bloody before the nobles of Tenochtitlan again bent a to the strangers who - despite their white faces and bristling beards - were not the emissaries of Quetzalcoatl.

It is one of fate's poorer ironies that Quetzalcoatl, to whom the Mexicans attributed their culture, was even for an hour confused with Cortes who destroyed it - "beheaded a culture as the passer-by sweeps off the head of a sunflower."

- From Fair Gods and Stone Faces, by Constance Irwin

Conquest and Genocide

In 1530, Pizarro set forth for El Dorado. He was an illiterate. Columbus had arrived in 1498. Pizarro set out from Panama to Peru. 180 men went with him. There were 12 million Incas, and their Empire expanded 3,000 miles, over Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, and Chile. In November 1532 he arrived at the Inca stronghold. After the king rejected the Spanish priests demand to become Christian, Pizarro’s men massacred the Inca king’s entire court. Men were tortured and the king saw 4,000 of his people slaughtered in 2 hours by 180 men. For 7 months the gold from raided cities poured into Pizarro’s coffers. In August 1533, the king was murdered also. Pizarro amassed 13,000 pounds of gold, worth over 70 million dollars. One-fifth was shipped to Spain, and the rest is said to have been looted. All the complex aesthetic Peruvian artifacts in gold, was systematically melted down, and very little of it remains. In under a century the Spanish had plundered and decimated a civilization thousands of years old.

Recent Discoveries

The past fifty years have seen an explosion of new archaeological discoveries which have stunned scholars all over the world…Over 500,000 clay tablets have been excavated and many of them have been deciphered. It is only in the past 30 years or so, that the true meaning and relevance of the tablets has been identified by a handful of broad thinkers - Michael Tellinger (Slave Species of God)

Original Homelands

All have preserved, mixed with the vague legends of their history, the memory of a primitive country where their ancestors had lived before their dispersion - Professor S. H. Buchanan (The World and the Book)

Epic of Emmerkar

Another ancient Sumerian tablet has interesting similarities to the Biblical account of the Garden of Eden, in a poem known as the Epic of Emmerkar. This epic talked about the land of Dilmun – it was a clean and pure place, where the lion did not kill and the lamb and the wolf were peacefully associated. Sickness was unknown and in these and other ways this land had interesting similarities to the biblical Garden of Eden - Clifford Wilson (The Chariots Still Crash)

Indian Records

Sanskrit writings have preserved maps of Ireland, England, and Spain, giving the shape and outline of their coasts, and their very names, and yet have preserved no memory of the expeditions or colonizations by which they acquired that knowledge?

The White Island

The nations on the west of the Atlantic look to the 'east' for their place of origin; while on the east of the Atlantic they look to the 'west': thus all the lines of tradition converge upon Atlantis. But here is the same testimony that in the Garden of Eden there were four rivers radiating from one parent stream… And these four rivers, as we have seen, we find in the Scandinavian traditions, and in the legends of the Chinese, the Tartars, the Singhalese, the Tibetians, the Buddhists, the Hebrews, and the Brahmans…And not only do we find this tradition of the Garden of Eden in the Old World, but it meets us also among the civilized races of America. The elder Montezuma said to Cortez, "Our fathers dwelt in that happy and prosperous place which they called Aztlan, which means 'whiteness’ – Ignatius Donnelly (Atlantis: The Antediluvian World)

Directly across the Atlantic Ocean, in the west, the Aztec version of Atlantis – Aztlan was referred to as the ‘White Island.’ In the opposite direction, in the east, Hindu traditions in India described ancestral origins from Attala, likewise known as the ‘White Island’ - Frank Joseph (The Atlantis Encyclopedia)

Is this where we get our legends of an Ivory Tower on an island? Was it a real tower on a real island or our ivory spines on the islands of our bodies? Or was it both?...‘The White Island’ described in the great Indian epic Mahabharata and in the epic poems, the Puranas, as the mountainous homeland of a powerful and highly civilized race located in ‘the Western Sea’ on the other side of the world from India…Atala itself sank in a violent storm - ibid


Long-forgotten sacred tablets of India describe, he says, among other things, the creation of man in the land of Mu, the mother country of humanity - which land was not the land of Asia. Records of later date describe the destruction of the land, "when the earth's crust was broken up by earthquakes, and then sank into a fiery abyss. Then the waters of the Pacific rolled in over her, leaving only water where a mighty civilization had existed." He finds the land of Mu mentioned by Plato; he finds "the Land of Mu," or "Lands of the West" in the Troano Manuscript, an ancient Mayan book, and in the Codex Cortesianus, another Mayan book; he finds it in the Lhasa record, and in hundreds of other writings in all parts of the world, including India, Egypt, Greece, Central America, and Mexico – Edna Kenton (The Book of Earths)

Destruction of Lemuria (Churchward)

The whole continent heaved and rolled like the ocean's waves. The land trembled and shook like the leaves of a tree in a storm. Temples and palaces came crashing to the ground and monuments and statues were overturned. The cities became heaps of ruins.' As the land rose and fell, quivered and shook, the fires of the underneath burst forth, piercing the clouds in roaring flames three miles in diameter. There they were met by lightning shafts which filled the heavens. A thick black pall of smoke overshadowed the land. Huge cataclysmic waves rolled in over the shores and extended themselves over the plains. Cities and all things living went down to destruction before them. Agonizing cries of the multitude filled the air. The people sought refuge in their temples and citadels only to be driven out by fire and smoke, and the women and the men in their shining garments and precious stones cried: "Mu, save us!”...During the night the land was torn asunder and rent to pieces. With thunderous roarings the doomed land sank. Down, down, down she went, into the mouth of hell, a tank of fire. As the broken land fell into that great abyss of fire, flames shot up around and enveloped her. The fires claimed their victim. Mu and her 64,000,000 people were sacrificed - James Churchward (The Lost Continent of Mu)

From Brinsley Le Pour Trench’s Sky People

We are already here, among you. Some of us have always been here, with you, yet apart from, watching, and occasionally guiding you whenever the opportunity arose. Now, however, our numbers have been increased in preparation for a further step in the development of your planet: a step of which you are not yet aware, although it has been hinted at frequently enough in the parables of your prophets, who have garbled whatever inspiration they have been able to receive. Sometimes they were ignorant. Sometimes they were unable to translate clearly the concepts implanted in their minds. Sometimes they were cautious, and to ensure the preservation of the information they wished to place upon the record in the world, they spoke in metaphors and symbols….We have been confused with the gods of many world-religions, although we are not gods, but your own fellow creatures, as you will learn directly before many more years have passed. You will find records of our presence in the mysterious symbols of ancient Egypt, where we made ourselves known in order to accomplish certain ends…Our principle symbol appears in the religious art of your present civilisation and occupies a position of importance upon the great seal of your country…It has been preserved in certain secret societies founded originally to keep alive the knowledge of our existence and our intentions toward mankind…We have left you certain landmarks, placed carefully in different parts of the globe, but most prominently in Egypt where we established our headquarters upon the occasion of our last overt, or, as you would say, public appearance. At that time the foundations of your present civilisation were 'laid in the earth' and the most ancient of your known landmarks established by means that would appear as miraculous to you now as they did to the pre-Egyptians, so many thousands of years ago. Since that time the whole art of building, in stone, has become symbolic, to many of you, of the work in hand -- the building of the human race towards its perfection…Your ancestors knew us in those days as preceptors and as friends. Now, through your own efforts, you have almost reached, in your majority, a new step on the long ladder of your liberation. You have been constantly aided by our watchful 'inspiration', and hindered only by the difficulties natural to your processes of physical and moral development, for the so-called 'forces' of evil and darkness have always been recruited from among the ranks of your own humanity - a circumstance for which you would be exceedingly grateful if you possessed full knowledge of conditions in the universe….You have lately achieved the means of destroying yourselves. Do not be hasty in your self-congratulation. Yours is not the first civilisation to have achieved -- and used -- such means. Yours will not be the first civilisation to be offered the means of preventing that destruction and proceeding, in the full glory of its accumulated knowledge, to establish an era of enlightenment upon the earth…However, if you do accept the means offered you, and if you do establish such a 'millennium' upon the basis of your present accomplishments, yours will be the first civilisation to do so. Always before, the knowledge, the techniques, the instructions, have become the possessions of a chosen few: a few chose themselves by their own open-minded and clear-sighted realisation of 'the shapes of things to come'. They endeavoured to pass on their knowledge in the best possible form, and by the most enduring means at their command. In a sense, they succeeded, but in another sense their failure equalled their success. Human acceptance is, to a very large extent, measurable by human experience. Succeeding generations, who never knew our actual presence, translated the teachings of their elders in the terms of their own experience. For instance, a cross-sectional drawing, much simplified and stylised by many copyings, of one of our travelling machines became the 'Eye of Horus', and then other eyes of other gods. Finally, the ancient symbol that was once an accurate representation of an important mechanical device has been given surprising connotations by the modern priesthood of psychology…The important fact is, however, that we are here, among you, and that you, as a world-race, will know it before very much longer! The time is almost ripe but, as with all ripening things, the process may not be hurried artificially without danger of damaging the fruit. There is a right time for every action, and the right time for our revelation of ourselves to your era is approaching…Some of you have seen our 'advance guard' already. You have met us often in the streets of your cities, and you have not noticed us. But when we flash through your skies in the ancient traditional vehicles you are amazed, and those of you who open your mouths and tell of what you have seen are accounted dupes and fools. Actually you are prophets, seers in the true sense of the word. You in Kansas and Oklahoma, you in Oregon and in California, and in idaho, you know what you have seen: do not be dismayed by meterologists. Their business is the weather. One of you says, 'I saw a torpedo-shaped object.' Others report 'disc-like' objects, some of you say 'spherical objects', or 'platter-like objects'. You are all reporting correctly and accurately what you saw, and in most cases you are describing the same sort of vehicle…The 'golden disc' -- now confused with solar disc and made a part of the parcel of religion -- even in your own times. The 'discus', hurled sunward by the Grecian -- and your own -- athletes. The 'eye of Horus', and the other eyes of symbology, alchemical and otherwise. These are our mechanical means of transport…Now that the art of manufacturing plastic materials has reached a certain perfection among you, perhaps you can imagine a material, almost transparent to the rays of ordinary visible light, yet strong enough to endure the stresses of extremely rapid flight. Look again at the great nebulae, and think of the construction of your own galaxy, and behold the universal examples of what we have found to be the perfect shape for an object which is to travel through what you still fondly refer to as 'empty' space…In the centre of the discus, gyroscopically controlled within a central sphere of the same transparent material, our control rooms revolve freely, accommodating themselves and us to flat or edgewise flight. Both methods are suited to your atmosphere, and when we convert abruptly from one to the other, as we are sometimes obliged to do, and you are watching, our machines seem suddenly to appear -- or to disappear. At our possible speeds your eyes, untrained and unprepared for the manoeuvre, do make mistakes -- but not the mistakes your scientists so often accuse them of making…We pass over your hilltops in horizontal flight. You see and report a torpedo-shaped object. We pass over, in formation, flying vertically 'edge-on', and you report a series of disc-shaped, platter-like objects, or perhaps a sphere. Or we go over at night, jet-slits glowing, and you see an orange disc. In any event you see us, and in any event we do not care. If we chose to remain invisible, we could do so, easily, and, in fact, we have done so almost without exception for hundreds of years. But you must become accustomed to our shapes in your skies, for one day they will be familiar, friendly, and reassuring sights…This time, it is to be hoped that the memory of them, passed on to your children and their children, will be clear and precise. That you will not cause them to forget, as your ancestors forgot, the meaning of the diagrams and the instructions we will leave with you. If you do fail, as other civilisations have failed, we will see your descendants wearing wiring-diagrams for simple machines as amulets, expecting the diagrams to do what their forefathers were taught the completed article would accomplish. Then their children, forgetting even that much -- or little -- would preserve the amulet as a general protective device -- or as an intellectual curiosity -- or perhaps as a religious symbol. Such is the cycle of forgetfulness!

Satellite images 'show Atlantis.' A scientist says he may have found remains of the lost city of Atlantis.

Satellite photos of southern Spain reveal features on the ground appearing to match descriptions made by Greek scholar Plato of the fabled utopia. Dr Rainer Kuehne thinks the "island" of Atlantis simply referred to a region of the southern Spanish coast destroyed by a flood between 800 BC and 500 BC. The research has been reported as an ongoing project in the online edition of the journal Antiquity. Satellite photos of a salt marsh region known as Marisma de Hinojos near the city of Cadiz show two rectangular structures in the mud and parts of concentric rings that may once have surrounded them.

"Plato wrote of an island of five stades (925m) diameter that was surrounded by several circular structures - concentric rings - some consisting of Earth and the others of water. We have in the photos concentric rings just as Plato described," Dr Kuehne told BBC News Online.

Dr Kuehne believes the rectangular features could be the remains of a "silver" temple devoted to the sea god Poseidon and a "golden" temple devoted to Cleito and Poseidon - all described in Plato's dialogue Critias.

Temples of the Sea God

The identification of the site with Atlantis was first proposed by Werner Wickboldt, a lecturer and Atlantis enthusiast who spotted the rectangles and concentric rings by studying photographs from across the Mediterranean for signs of the city described by Plato. The sizes of the "island" and its rings in the satellite image are slightly larger than those described by Plato. There are two possible explanations for this, says Dr Kuehne. First, Plato may have underplayed the size of Atlantis. Secondly, the ancient unit of measurement used by Plato - the stade - may have been 20% larger than traditionally assumed. If the latter is true, one of the rectangular features on the "island" matches almost exactly the dimensions given by Plato for the temple of Poseidon. Mr Wickboldt explained: "This is the only place that seems to fit [Plato's] description." He added that the Greeks might have confused an Egyptian word referring to a coastline with one meaning "island" during transmission of the Atlantis story. Commenting on the satellite image showing the two "temples", Tony Wilkinson, an expert in the use of remote sensing in archaeology at the University of Edinburgh, UK, told BBC News Online: "A lot of the problems come with interpretations. I can see something there and I could imagine that one could interpret it in various ways. But you've got several leaps of faith here.

Metal Trading

We use the imagery to recognize certain types of imprint on the ground and then do [in the field] verification on them. Based on what we see on the ground we make an interpretation.

What we need here is a date range. Otherwise, you're just dealing with morphology. But the [features] are interesting."

The fabled utopia of Atlantis has captured the imagination of scholars for centuries. The earliest known records of this mythical land appear in Plato's dialogues Critias and Timaios. His depiction of a land of fabulous wealth, advanced civilisation and natural beauty has spurred many adventurers to seek out its location. One recent theory equates Atlantis with Spartel Island, a mud shoal in the straits of Gibraltar that sank into the sea 11,000 years ago. Plato described Atlantis as having a "plain". Dr Kuehne said this might be the plain that extends today from Spain's southern coast up to the city of Seville. The high mountains described by the Greek scholar could be the Sierra Morena and Sierra Nevada.

Plato also wrote that Atlantis is rich in copper and other metals. Copper is found in abundance in the mines of the Sierra Morena," Dr Kuehne explained.

Dr Kuehne noticed that the war between Atlantis and the eastern Mediterranean described in Plato's writings closely resembled attacks on Egypt, Cyprus and the Levant during the 12th Century BC by mysterious raiders known as the Sea People. As a result, he proposes that the Atlanteans and the Sea People were in fact one and the same. This dating would equate the city and society of Atlantis with either the Iron Age Tartessos culture of southern Spain or another, unknown, Bronze Age culture. A link between Atlantis and Tartessos was first proposed in the early 20th Century. Dr Kuehne said he hoped to attract interest from archaeologists to excavate the site. But this may be tricky. The features in the satellite photo are located within Spain's Donana national park.


Ice Age blast 'ravaged America'

A controversial new idea suggests that a large space rock exploded over North America 13,000 years ago.

The blast may have wiped out one of America's first Stone Age cultures as well as the continent's big mammals such as the mammoth and the mastodon. The blast, from a comet or asteroid, caused a major bout of climatic cooling which may also have affected human cultures emerging in Europe and Asia.

Scientists will outline their evidence this week at a meeting in Mexico. The evidence comes from layers of sediment at more than 20 sites across North America. These sediments contain exotic materials: tiny spheres of glass and carbon, ultra-small specks of diamond - called nanodiamond - and amounts of the rare element iridium that are too high to have come from Earth. All, they argue, point to the explosion 12,900 years ago of an extraterrestrial object up to 5km across. No crater remains, possibly because the Laurentide Ice Sheet, which blanketed thousands of sq km of North America during the last Ice Age, was thick enough to mask the impact. Another possibility is that it exploded in the air.

Climate Cooling

The rocks studied by the researchers have a black layer which, they argue, is the charcoal deposited by wildfires which swept the continent after the explosion.

The blast would not only have generated enormous amounts of heat that could have given rise to wildfires, but also brought about a period of climate cooling that lasted 1,000 years - an event known as the Younger Dryas.

Professor James Kennett, from the University of California in Santa Barbara (UCSB), said the explosion could be to blame for the extinction of several large North American mammals at the end of the last Ice Age.

"All the elephants, including the mastodon and the mammoth, all the ground sloths, including the giant ground sloth - which, when standing on its hind legs, would have been as big as a mammoth," he told the BBC.

"All the horses went out, all the North American camels went out. There were large carnivores like the sabre-toothed cat and an enormous bear called the short-faced bear."

Professor Kennett said this could have had an enormous impact on human populations.

Population Decline

According to the traditional view, humans crossed from north-east Asia to America at the end of the last Ice Age, across a land bridge which - at the time - connected Siberia to Alaska.

The Clovis culture was one of the earliest known cultures in the continent. These proficient hunter-gatherers developed a distinctive thin, fluted spear head known as the Clovis point, which is regarded as one of the most sophisticated stone tools ever developed.

Archaeologists have found evidence from the Topper site in South Carolina, US, that Clovis populations here went through a population collapse. But there is no evidence of a similar decline in other parts of the continent. The Clovis culture does vanish from the archaeological record abruptly, but it is replaced by a myriad of different local hunter-gatherer cultures.

Jeff Severinghaus, a palaeoclimatologist at Scripps Institution of Oceanography in California, told Nature magazine: "Their impact theory shouldn't be dismissed; it deserves further investigation."

According to the new idea, the comet would have caused widespread melting of the North American ice sheet. The waters would have poured into the Atlantic, disrupting its currents. This, they say, could have caused the 1,000 year-long Younger Dryas cold spell, which also affected Asia and Europe. The Younger Dryas has been linked by some researchers to changes in the living patterns of people living in the Middle East which led to the beginning of farming. A massive explosion near the Tunguska river, Siberia, in 1908, is also thought to have been caused by a space rock exploding in the atmosphere. It felled 80 million trees over an area of 2,000 sq km. The new theory will be presented and debated at the American Geophysical Union's Joint Meeting in Acapulco, Mexico, this week.

- From:

Blast From Space May Have Wiped Out Early Human Culture, Study Suggests:

Woolly mammoths, giant sloths, saber-toothed cats and dozens of other species of "megafauna" may have become extinct when a disintegrating comet or asteroid exploded over North America with the force of millions of hydrogen bombs, according to research by an international team of scientists. The blast, which the researchers believe occurred 12,900 years ago, may have also doomed a mysterious early human culture - known as Clovis people - while triggering a planetwide cooldown that wiped out the plant species that sustained many outsize ice age beasts, according to research published online Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Scientists have long speculated that an impact from a comet or asteroid may have wiped out dinosaurs 65 million years ago. But the notion of an extraterrestrial object wreaking such havoc during human times is a bit unnerving even to researchers.

"What is sobering about this theory of ours is that this impact would be so recent," Peter Schultz, a Brown University planetary geologist who participated in the research, was quoted as saying in a release from the university. "Not so long ago, something may have fallen from the sky and profoundly changed our climate and our culture."

The object - with a girth estimated to be 3 miles, or 5 kilometers - appears to have exploded high above present-day Canada with such fury that detritus was spread from California to Belgium. The height of the blast and the cushioning effect of the ice layers that still covered the region would explain the lack of an immense crater

"The comet may have broken up into small pieces as it neared the earth, and these pieces detonated in various places above North America and northern Europe," Ted Bunch, professor of geology at Northern Arizona University and a retired NASA researcher who specializes in extraterrestrial impact research, said in an interview.

The cataclysm occurred at the end of the Pleistocene era, when an array of fantastic mammals and birds - including camels, tapirs and a condor with a 16-foot, or 5-meter, wingspan - shared North America with Clovis people, hunter-gatherers known for their distinctive stone spearheads.

"The detonation may have fried them or the shock wave would have compressed them," said Bunch, one of the authors of the paper, referring to creatures directly exposed to the blast. "Others would have been wiped out in massive fires and floods."

Indeed, fossil records of some of the most exotic beasts associated with the era - along with Clovis culture - abruptly disappear with a dark layer of dirt called "black mat." The mat was formed by algae-rich water containing soot and other remnants of burned material, according to the research. Just beneath the black mat layer, scientists found high concentrations of magnetic grains holding iridium, charcoal, soot, carbon spherules and "glass-like carbon." Also found were tiny diamonds, known as nanodiamonds, and extraterrestrial helium.

"Nanodiamonds are formed only by the kind of incredible pressures you'd get from an extraterrestrial object slamming into earth," Bunch said. "The other material, especially the helium, also strongly suggests something extraterrestrial, most likely a comet or low-density, carbon-rich asteroid,” he said.

The soot is indicative of immense fires that roared across North America, fanned by hurricane-force winds, according to the scientists. The research, led by Richard Firestone of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California, is likely to create controversy among scientists. That is partly because it flies in the face of recent research suggesting that North America's big mammals were hunted to extinction by early humans, but mainly because the paper argues that the comet's impact triggered a planetwide big chill - the so-called Younger Dryas cooldown - that lasted 1,000 years.

"This is fascinating research when it comes to the mass extinctions. They really seem on to something," said Jeffrey Severinghaus, a geochemist and expert in prehistoric climatology with the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in California. "I can imagine this sort of impact causing a cooldown of five years or 10 years, but 1,000 years - well, I'm skeptical. I don't think they have given good evidence for that."


A Nuclear Catastrophe in Paleo-Indian Times?

We introduce here a remarkable theory of terrestrial catastrophism that seems to be supported by evidence that is equally remarkable. One of the authors of this theory (RBF) is identified as a nuclear scientist at the Lawrence Berkeley Nuclear Laboratory. The second author (WT) is a consultant. The authors' credentials seem so good that we must take a close look at their extraordinary claims concerning a natural phenomenon that they believe reset radiocarbon clocks in north-central North America and---potentially - elsewhere on the planet. We will be most interested in the reception accorded these claims by the scientific community.

The claims. In the authors' words: Our research indicates that the entire Great Lakes region (and beyond) was subjected to particle bombardment and a catastrophic nuclear irradiation that produced secondary thermal neutrons from cosmic ray interactions. The neutrons produced unusually large quantities of ^239 Pu and substantially altered the natural uranium abundances (^235 U/^238 U) in artifacts and in other exposed materials including cherts, sediments, and the entire landscape. These neutrons necessarily transmuted residual nitrogen (^ N) in the dated charcoals to radiocarbon, thus explaining anomalous dates. Some North American dates may in consequence be as much as 10,000 years too young. So, we are not dealing with a trivial phenomenon!

Four main categories of supporting evidence are claimed and presented in varying degrees of detail.

· Anomalously young radiocarbon dates in north-central North America. Example: the Gainey site in Michigan. [Other map sites include Thedford & Zander, Ont.; Potts, NY; Shoop, Penn.; Alton, Ind.; Taylor, Il.; Butler & Leavitt, Mich.; and far to the north Grant Lake, Nunavut; and in the far southwest Baker, N.M. - TWC]

· Physical evidence of particle bombardment. Example: chert artifacts with high densities of particle-entrance wounds.

· Anomalous uranium and plutonium abundance ratios in the affected area.

· Tree-ring and marine sediment data.

· The authors claim that the burst of radiation from a nearby supernova, circa 12,500 years ago, not only reset radiocarbon clocks but also heated the planet's atmosphere, melted ice sheets, and led to biological extinctions.

If verified, the claimed phenomenon would also "reset" archeological models of the settlement of North and South America. To illustrate, we may have to add as many as 10,000 years to site dates in much of North America!

Thus we add another potential cause of an often-hypothesized 12,500-BP catastrophe that is said to have changed the world's history. Competing theories involve asteroid impact, volcanism, a Venusian side-swipe, etc.

Science Frontiers, No. 135, May-Jun, 2001, pp. 1 & 2

The Ural Slab

PRAVDA will hold a press-conference on June 6 with Doctor of physics and mathematics, professor of the State University of Bashkiria, Alexander Chuvyrov. This scientist found the infallible proof about the existence of the ancient highly-developed civilization. He found a huge stone slab, which was 120 million years old, with a relief map of the Ural region on it.

The Map of the Creator

A find of Bashkir scientists contraries to traditional notions of human history: stone slab which is 120 million years covered with the relief map of Ural Region.

This seems to be impossible. Scientists of Bashkir State University have found indisputable proofs of an ancient highly developed civilization’s existence. The question is about a great plate found in 1999, with picture of the region done according to an unknown technology. This is a real relief map. Today’s military has almost similar maps. The map contains civil engineering works: a system of channels with a length of about 12,000 km, weirs, powerful dams. Not far from the channels, diamond-shaped grounds are shown, whose destination is unknown. The map also contains some inscriptions. Even numerous inscriptions. At first, the scientists thought that was Old Chinese language. Though, it turned out that the subscriptions were done in a hieroglyphic-syllabic language of unknown origin. The scientists never managed to read it…

“The more I learn the more I understand that I know nothing,” – the doctor of physical and mathematical science, professor of Bashkir State University, Alexander Chuvyrov admits. Namely Chuvyrov made that sensational find. Already in 1995, the professor and his post-graduate student from China Huan Hun decided to study the hypothesis of possible migration of Old Chinese population to the territory of Siberia and Ural. In an expedition to Bashkiria, they found several rock carvings done in Old Chinese language. These finds confirmed the hypothesis of Chinese migrants. The subscriptions were read. They mostly contained information about trade bargains, marriage and death registration.

Though, during the searches, notes dated the 18th century were found in archives of Ufa governor-general. They reported about 200 unusual stone slabs which were situated not far from the Chandar village, Nurimanov Region. Chuvyrov and his colleague at once decided that slabs could be connected with Chinese migrants. Archive notes also reported that in 17th-18th centuries, expeditions of Russian scientists who investigated Ural Region had studied 200 white slabs with signs and patterns, while in early 20th century, archaeologist A.Schmidt also had seen some white slabs in Bashkiria. This made the scientist start the search. In 1998, after having formed a team of his students, Chuvyrov launched the work. He hired a helicopter, and the first expedition carried a flying around of the places where the slabs were supposed to be. Though, despite all efforts, the ancient slabs were not found. Chuvyrov was very upset and even thought the slabs were just a beautiful legend.

The luck was unexpected. During one of Chuvyrov’s trips to the village, ex-chairman of the local agricultural council, Vladimir Krainov, came to him (apropos, in the house of Krainov’s father, archaeologist Schmidt once staid) and said: “Are you searching for some stone slabs? I have a strange slab in my yard.” “At first, I did not took that report seriously, - Chuvyrov told. – Though, I decided to go to that yard to see it. I remember this day exactly: July 21, 1999. Under the porch of the house, the slab with some dents lied. The stab was so heavy that we together could not take it out. So I went to the city of Ufa, to ask for help.”

In a week, work was launched in Chandar. After having dug out the slab, the searchers were stroke with its size: it was 148 cm high, 106 cm wide and 16 cm thick. While it weighed at least one ton. The master of the house made special wooden rollers, so the slab was rolled out from the hole. The find was called “Dashka’s stone” (in honour of Alexander Chuvyrov’s granddaughter born the day before it) and transported to the university for investigation. After the slab was cleaned of earth, the scientists could not entrust to their eyes... “At first sight, - Chuvyrov sais, - I understood that was not a simple stone piece, but a real map, and not a simple map, but a three-dimensional. You can see it yourself.”

“How did we manage to identify the place? At first, we could not imagine the map was so ancient. Happily, relief of today’s Bashkiria has not changed so much within millions of years. We could identify Ufa Height, while Ufa Canyon is the main point of our proofs, because we carried out geological studies and found its track where it must be according to the ancient map. Displacement of the canyon happened because of tectonic stabs which moved from East. The group of Russian and Chinese specialists in the field of cartography, physics, mathematics, geology, chemistry, and Old Chinese language managed to precisely find out that the slab contains the map of Ural region, with rivers Belya, Ufimka, Sutolka,” – Alexander Chuvyrov said while showing the lines on the stone to the journalists. – You can see Ufa Canyon – the break of the earth’s crust, stretched out from the city of Ufa to the city of Sterlitimak. At the moment, Urshak River runs over the former canyon.” The map is done on a scale 1 : 1.1 km.

Alexander Chuvyrov, being physicist, has got into the habit of entrusting only to results of investigation. While today there are such facts.

Geological structure of the slab was determined: it consists of three levels. The base is 14 cm chick, made of the firmest dolomite. The second level is probably the most interesting, “made” of diopside glass. The technology of its treatment is not known to modern science. Actually, the picture is marked on this level. While the third level is 2 mm thick and made of calcium porcelain protecting the map from external impact.

“It should be noticed, - the professor said, - that the relief has not been manually made by an ancient stonecutter. It is simply impossible. It is obvious that the stone was machined.” X-ray photographs confirmed that the slab was of artificial origin and has been made with some precision tools.

At first, the scientists supposed that the ancient map could have been made by the ancient Chinese, because of vertical inscriptions on the map. As well known, vertical literature was used in Old Chinese language before 3rd century. To check his supposition, professor Chuvyrov visited Chinese empire library. Within 40 minutes he could spend in the library according to the permission he looked through several rare books, though no one of them contained literature similar to that one on the slab. After the meeting with his colleagues from Hunan University, he completely gave up the version about “Chinese track.” The scientist concluded that porcelain covering the slab had never been used in China. Although all the efforts to decipher the inscriptions were fruitless, it was found out that the literature had hieroglyphic-syllabic character. Chuvyrov, however, states he has deciphered one sign on the map: it signifies latitude of today’s city of Ufa.

The longer the slab was studied, the more mysteries appeared. On the map, a giant irrigative system could be seen: in addition to the rivers, there are two 500-metre-wide channel systems, 12 dams, 300-500 metres wide, approximately 10 km long and 3 km deep each. The dams most likely helped in turning water in either side, while to create them over 1 quadrillion cubic metres of earth was shifted. In comparison with that irrigative system, Volga-Don Channel looks like a scratch on the today’s relief. As a physicist, Alexander Chuvyrov supposes that now mankind can build only a small part of what is pictured on the map. According to the map, initially, Belaya River had an artificial river-bed.

It was difficult to determine even an approximate age of the slab. At first, radiocarbonic analysis was carried out, afterwards levels of stab were scanned with uranium chronometer, though the investigations showed different results and the age of the slab remained unclear. While examining the stone, two shells were found on its surface. The age of one of them – Navicopsina munitus of Gyrodeidae family - is about 500 million years, while of the second one – Ecculiomphalus princeps of Ecculiomphalinae subfamily - is about 120 million years. Namely that age was accepted as a “working version.” “The map was probably created at the time when the Earth’s magnetic pole situated in the today’s area of Franz Josef Land, while this was exactly 120 million years ago, - professor Chuvyrov says. – The map we have is beyond of traditional perception of mankind and we need a long time to get used to it. We have got used to our miracle. At first we thought that the stone was about 3,000 years. Though, that age was gradually growing, till we identified the shells ingrained in the stone to sign some objects. Though, who could guarantee that the shell was alive while being ingrained in the map? The map’s creator probably used a petrified find.”

What could be the destination of the map? That is probably the most interesting thing. Materials of the Bashkir find were already investigated in Centre of Historical Cartography in Visconsin, USA. The Americans were amazed. According to them, such three-dimensional map could have only one destination – a navigational one, while it could be worked out only through aerospace survey. Moreover, namely now in the US, work is being carried out at creation of world three-dimensional map like that. Though, the Americans intend to complete the work only to 2010. The question is that while compiling such three-dimensional map, it is necessary to work over too many figures. “Try to map at least a mountain! – Chuvyrov says. – The technology of compiling such maps demands super-power computers and aerospace survey from the Shuttle.” So, who then did created this map? Chuvyrov, while speaking about the unknown cartographers, is wary: “I do not like talks about some UFO and extraterrestrial. Let us call the author of the map simply – the creator.”

It looks like that who lived and built at that time used only air transport means: there is no ways on the map. Or they, probably, used water ways. There is also an opinion, that the authors of the ancient map did not live there at all, but only prepared that place for settlement through draining the land. This seems to be the most probable version, though nothing could be stated for the time being. Why not to assume that the authors belonged to a civilization which existed earlier?

Latest investigations of the map bring one sensation after another. Now, the scientists are sure of the map being only a fragment of a big map of the Earth. According to some hypothesis, there were totally 348 fragments like that. The other fragments could be probably somewhere near there. In outskirts of Chandar, the scientists took over 400 samples of soil and found out that the whole map had been most likely situated in the gorge of Sokolinaya Mountain (Falcon Mountain). Though, during the glacial epoch it was tore to pieces. But if the scientists manage to gather the “mosaic,” the map should have an approximate seize of 340 x 340 m. After having studied the archive materials, Chuvyrov ascertained approximate place where four pieces could be situated: one could lie under one house in Chandar, the other – under the house of merchant Khasanov, the third – under one of the village baths, the fourth – under the bridge’s pier of the local narrow-gauge railway.

In the meanwhile, Bashkir scientists send out information about their find to different scientific centres of the world; in several international congresses, they have already given reports on the subject: The Civil Engineering Works Map of an Unknown Civilization of South Ural.”

The find of Bashkir scientists has no analogues. With only one exclusion. When the research was at its height, a small stone – chalcedony - got to professor Chuvyrov’s table, containing a similar relief. Probably somebody, who saw the stab wanted to copy the relief. Though, who and why?

Good afternoon, Alexandr Nikolaevich! We are glad to see you in our office. We would like to notice that the material about your find was read by at least 500 thousand readers of both English and Russian versions of our edition. Already before the conference, there were about 60 questions, so taking into account the time limits, you should manage to answer as more questions as possible. Let us begin.

Thank you for the possibility to tell about my find. I on myself could judge about the number of people who have read the publications. Just after they were published, correspondents of foreign TV channels and of different editions started to call me. And I am thankful for this, too, because you have drawn attention of world information agencies to my discovery. I would try to give short answers to answer to all readers. And afterwards, I would prepare more detailed answers.

Dear Professor, and what about the Charles Darwin theory? Or probably the age of anthropoid apes is in actual fact much older? Could, for example, a conclusion be made basing on your find that people lived already in the epoch of dinosaurs?

Unfortunately, I have never asked myself about the possible creator of the slab covered with the map. My task was simple: I had to investigate the found object and to describe it, to investigate materials of which the slab was made and to try to answer the question about the object’s age.

In what region was the slab found? Is it far from the described territory? Are there any surmises about where the other slabs could be? Probably, if other slabs are found, the question about Athlantida will be answered?

The slab was found at a distance of 120 km from the city of Ufa, in Chandar settlement. Today, we can speak about location of five more slabs, while raising of them needs additional financing. As for the Athlantida, I am not a specialist on this field.

What made you carry out searches namely in that place and at that depth? Why did you suppose that this would be namely the first slab of the 200 as if making up the whole map? And why namely that piece of the map was found which presents the region? Why no more slab was found? Do you completely exclude the possibility of a forgery?

There are special methods to identify places according to maps, for example, through hydrological situation, to be more exact, through identifying rivers, lakes etc. This could be also done through certain characteristics of relief, for example, through mountains, vales etc. There are computer methods which allow to do it very fast. On the other hand, changes of relief are well known, which took place over latest millions of years, there are special computer programs allowing to modulate these processes. These methods were used in our work. As for the full number of the slabs, I consider information to be true about archaeological finds from 1921. There is information about six slabs, so we will speak about these six slabs.

Dear Mr Chuvyrov! Several questions to you.

Dear Alexander, our institute developed a geo-radar that can search for foreign bodies at the depth of up to 50 meters under the ground and at the depth of up to 100 meters under the ice and fresh water. This radar is currently manufactured. Let’s discuss the opportunities for our equipment to search for other fragments…What struck you most in your discovery and what are your subjective ideas that you have not shared yet with the readers?

The stone itself struck me most. The location of five other stones is known and if there are enough funds assigned for the works, then they will be retrieved and exhibited in museums. The slabs are located in different settlements of the Nurimansky region of the republic of Bashkiria. The question pertaining to highly-developed civilizations is outside my competence. A special international committee is supposed to answer this question after five other slabs are found. Are there any more slabs? It is an important and interesting question, but it is for the next generation.

Could you please explain in simple language the way how the age of the stone lump and of the map was identified? How do you distinguish those things? What proves in your discovery that the civilization was a highly-developed one? The way that the map was done, or is there any other evidence?

This is not a lump, it is an artificial slab, and the relief map was done artificially too. Unfortunately, there is only an indirect way to identify the age of the map - paleontological or paleomagnetic method. Unfortunately, the uranic, or the argon methods can identify only the absolute age of the rock that was not used in the material of the map. The fact that the civilization was a highly-developed one can be proved with the absence of a 3-D map of the world nowadays. Another thing that can prove it is the knowledge of the written language and of the physical and mathematical laws.

Dear Professor Chuvyrov, I would like to ask you a question regarding the identification of the slab’s age. Did you analyze the stone itself, or the ground that filled the cracks of the stone?

We analyzed the material of the stone. There are no cracks on it. There is a map of rivers and valleys that was cut on it with special instruments.

Ruins of Lovecraft’s “Kadath” Found In Antarctica?

A California TV crew missing since November 2002, a video they left behind and a mission by U.S. Navy SEALs are the key elements in a story that claims extensive prehistoric ruins have been found under the ice of Antarctica.

The U.S. government said it will seek to block the airing of a video found by Navy rescuers in Antarctica that purportedly reveals that a massive archaeological dig is underway two miles (3,200 meters) beneath the ice. The Atlantis TV production crew that shot the video is still missing. Attorneys for the Beverly Hills-based AtlantisTV stressed that the company's primary concern is for the safety and welfare of the crew. But they stated they will 'vigorously oppose' any attempts to 'censor material that is clearly in the public interest and public domain.' The icy continent of Antarctica, they point out, belongs to no nation. The U.S. has no jurisdiction there. That video is the property of AtlantisTV,' said a company spokesman, 'We shot it. It's ours. And as soon as it is rightfully restored to us, we're going to air it. End of story. Two Navy officers who saw the tape described its contents to National Science Foundation (NSF) researchers upon their return to the Amundsen-Scott Station at the South Pole, according to sources at McMurdo Station, the main American base in Antarctica. They said it showed spectacular ruins and other things they couldn't go into,' an NSF scientist reported. 'We chalked it up to some kind of subzero-induced delusion until a chopper (helicopter--J.T.) full of Navy SEALs landed and picked them up and took off. Now, we're scratching our heads. Officials of the U.S. Naval Support Task Force, Antarctica deny the story or the possession of any video shot by the missing AtlantisTV crew. Science fiction author Howard Phillips Lovecraft (1890-1937) claimed in several stories that a prehistoric city existed in Antarctica called "Kadath of the Cold Waste.

Lovecraft described its "discovery" in his novel At the Mountains of Madness, written between January and March 1931. Incredibly, one of his passages is a precise description of a scene in the Atlantis TV video.

Lovecraft wrote:

But the salient object of the place was the titanic stone ramp, which, eluding the archways by a sharp turn outward into the open floor, wound spirally up the stupendous cylindrical wall like an inside counterpart of those once climbing outside the monstrous towers or ziggurats of ancient Babylon...The thing was excellently preserved up to the present top of the tower-- a highly remarkable circumstance in view of its exposure-- and its shelter had done much to protect the bizarre and disturbing cosmic sculptures on the walls.

As we stepped out into the awesome half-daylight of this monstrous cylinder-bottom--fifty million years old, and without doubt the most primally ancient structure ever to meet our eyes--we saw that the ramp-traversed sides stretched dizzily up to a height of fully sixty feet (18 meters). According to the sculptures, the original tower had stood in the centre of an immense circular plaza; and had been perhaps 500 or 600 feet (150 to 180 meters) high, with tiers of horizontal discs near the top and a row of needle-like spires along the upper rim. News of the video, which Navy sources said they found in an abandoned supply dump 100 miles (160 kilometers) west of Vokstok Station, came on the heels of U.S. attempts to strike passages from Raising Atlantis, the upcoming novel by Thomas Greanias that is the basis for AtlantisTV's popular online Atlantis Mapping Project channel. Federal officials agreed to allow an uncensored version of Raising Atlantis to go on sale in April (2003) at as an e-book. But they won court approval to 'block certain portions that might compromise national security' from the hardcover edition due in bookstores at year's end. The novel focuses on a secret US. military expedition that discovers ancient ruins two miles beneath the ice in Antarctica. Recent events in Antarctica have raised questions about whether the story is fiction or a novelization of actual events" during the years 2000 and 2001. Sources say the current federal review is focusing on the novel's depiction of "Federal Emergency Plan D," which officially doesn't exist, although parts of the plan have become public in the wake of the September 11 (2001) terrorist attacks on America and calls for the activation of a 'shadow government' to operate in secret hideouts outside the national capital" of Washington, D.C. "to ensure the survival of the United States of America and the continuity of government in the event of a global catastrophe or nuclear Armageddon.

Editor's Note:

True enough. Immediately after the attacks, the USA's Federal Emergency Management Agency or FEMA implemented the Continuity of Government or COG Plan, operating out of Mount Weather and Mount Pony in the state of Virginia.)

"'It's the specifics of Stage Two and Stage Three (of the COG Plan) detailed in Raising Atlantis that concern federal officials,'" an AtlantisTV spokesman said. 'Hell, I didn't even know about Stage One and the shadow government until 9-11, let alone Stage Two or Stage Three,' said one CIA source on condition of anonymity.”


See the Atlantis Mapping Project news release for November 17, 2002, "U.S. discovers 'spectacular ruins' in Antarctica captured on video." Also The Annotated H.P. Lovecraft, edited by S.T. Joshi, Dell Publishing, New York, N.Y., 1997, pages 302 and 303. Merci beaucoup a Robert Fischer pour ces nouvelles.)

New World link to Arctic Find

Humans occupied the freezing lands high above the Arctic Circle during the last Ice Age, say Russian archaeologists.

New Stone Age artifacts from Yana in northern Siberia have pushed back the human presence in the Arctic by around 16,000 years, surprising many experts. The finds also hint that North America may have been populated much earlier than thought given the dig's relative proximity to the Bering Strait. Full details of the discoveries appear in the academic journal Science. Vladimir Pitulko from the Institute for the History of Material Culture in St Petersburg, Russia, and others have uncovered numerous artifacts and animal bones in frozen deposits from an ancient terrace by the Yana River. The artifacts, made by modern humans (Homo sapiens), include spear "foreshafts" and stone tools. The finds suggest humans may have been hunting big game animals in the region by around 30,000 years ago.

Resilience and ingenuity

Foreshafts are the long part of the spear that humans attached spear-points to before hurling them at prey. They allowed hunters to replace broken spear-points quickly and throw the spear again. Two of the foreshafts are made from mammoth ivory, while another is relatively unusual in being fashioned from the horn of a woolly rhino. The animal bones found at the site belong to mammoths, bison and horses amongst others.

"This site shows that people adapted to this harsh, high-latitude, Late Pleistocene environment much earlier than previously thought," the authors write in Science. Around 30,000 years ago, human hunters would have needed all their resilience and ingenuity to survive in this freezing environment, especially during winter. The Yana River valley is about 500 kilometres above the Arctic Circle. The artifacts found at the site date to a time when the climate was in the process of cooling down, turning open meadows into icy tundra. "It's about as far north as you can get; it's pretty neat. I think it's a very significant site," said Professor Dennis Stanford, of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, US. But it is impossible to know how long humans inhabited the region for, or indeed whether they lived there at all. They may simply have made excursions here from bases in warmer climes.

Intriguingly, the authors suggest that the foreshafts they used bear a similarity to those of the Clovis people, long regarded as the first human settlers of North America. There is scant evidence for a human presence there prior to 14,000 years ago.

Early settlers

The first colonists are thought to have crossed into the New World from Asia when a fall in sea levels at the height of the last Ice Age formed a land bridge, known as Beringia, between the two continents. To some researchers, the observation that people had adapted to living in the Arctic by 30,000 years ago raises the possibility that settlers could have reached North America even earlier. But the suggestion is highly controversial.

"I don't think it has anything to do with the populating of America," said Stanford. "They're comparing [the foreshaft to something which is 15,000 years older than Clovis - twice as old as Clovis. And it is widespread over Europe and Asia [in the Upper Palaeolithic]."

- By Paul Rincon (BBC News Online science staff)

Ground Penetrating Radar Showing Ancient Civilizations

Due to the declassification of ground penetrating radar, data has come forth to show us that huge underground tunnel systems and complex underground cities existed thousands of years ago right under our feet. Places such as Guatemala in South Americas, tunnels have been mapped under the Mayan pyramid complex at Tikal, which extend a full 800 kilometres to the opposite side of the country. This tunnel system now sheds light on how half a million Mayan Indians escaped the decimation of their culture.

SIRA radar was used in 1978 to map a subterranean complex beneath the Egyptian Pyramids as early as 1978. . At a recent meeting in Australia, one of the key scientists on the Giza project, Dr. Jim Hurtak, showed film footage of work in progress called, CHAMBERS OF THE DEEP, due to be released at the end of the century. As of yet, this footage has never come to light.

The film reveals the discovery of a vast megalithic metropolis, 15,000 years old, reaching several levels below the Giza plateau. While the rest of the Nu-Age speculates about a hidden chamber under the left paw of the Sphinx, the legendary "City Of The Gods,” lays sprawled beneath. Complete with hydraulic underground waterways, the film shows massive chambers, the proportions of our largest cathedrals, with enormous statues, the size of the Valley of the Nile, carved in-situ. Researchers, risking their lives with lights and cameras, carefully negotiated rubber dinghies across subterranean rivers and kilometer-wide lakes, to penetrate sealed chambers beyond. Already, remarkable caches of records and artifacts have been found.

From these records, as well as the Sumerian, we know there was an era the Egyptians called Zep Tepi, "The First Times.” During this time a mysterious group of 'gods' appeared , bringing with them their sciences, traditions and laws. We can find evidence of this time and these gods throughout the world...From Thoth and Osiris in Egypt to Quetzacoatl and Virococha in the Americas.

Evidence now shows us that prior to the deluges great and high tech civilizations existed. One of the key scientists on the Giza project, Dr. Jim Hurtak, said this was a culture who cracked the genetic code and possessed the keys of the physical spectrum, the "Higher Light Physics" of the ancients... After the departure of the Anunnaki, much of the information was lost. What wasn't has been secretly and selfishly guarded by the 'keepers of knowledge' which is of course the shepherds of the Anunnaki.

As was promised, all things shall be revealed in the end days. Many discoveries today are now coming to light. What we have found out is that the discoveries in Egypt and other parts of the world not only evidence an advance technology, but an evolutionary path beyond our present state. Careful scientific examination of the world's key pyramid sites, reveal them to be sophisticated harmonic structures, not only mirroring positions of the planets and stellar systems but, designed to mimic the chakras and harmonic cavities of the human body. Even each stone within the Great Pyramid is harmonically tuned to a specific frequency or musical tone. The sarcophagus in the centre of the Great Pyramid is tuned to the frequency of the human heart beat.

Astonishing experiments, conducted by Dr. Hurtak and colleagues at the Great Pyramid and other sites in the South Americas, demonstrate the pyramids to be voice-activated "geophysical computers." Intoning specific ancient sounds, the scientific team produced visible standing waves of light, above and within the pyramids and were even able to penetrate, hitherto, inaccessible chambers. Subsequent discoveries indicate the ancient priest-scientists employed some sort of harmonic sound technology within the temple structures.

The lost Enochian knowledge reveals the mother tongue as a "language of Light.” Known to the ancients as HIBURU. It is the primal seed language, introduced at the beginning of this time cycle. Modern research confirms, the most ancient form Hebrew to be a natural language, the alphabetic forms emerging from the phosphene flare patterns of the brain. The same shapes, in fact, born of a spinning vortex. It is a true language of light, coursing through our very nervous system.

Encoding the natural waveform geometries of the physical world, Hiburu is a harmonic language, mimicking the waveform properties of light. The "keys" Enoch speaks of, turn out to be sound keys, keys to the vibratory matrix of reality itself, the mythic "Power of the World.” The Enochian knowledge describes sonic equations, encoded within the ancient mantras and god names, capable of directly affecting the nervous system and producing profound effect of healing and higher consciousness states.

As the ancient texts declare, "If you would speak with the gods you must first learn the language of the gods." DNA, the ancient cabalistic "Tree Of Life" portrayed in the Biblical Torah, is now coming to be viewed as a live vibrating structure, rather than a fixed tape recording. Many modern scientists regard DNA as a shimmering, waveform configuration, able to be modified by light, radiation, magnetic fields or sonic pulses. The legacy of Thoth/Enoch suggests this "language of Light,” the

harmonic science of the ancients, could actually affect DNA.

The knowledge of Thoth/Enoch implies humans are meant to evolve beyond our present terrestrial form, as the Bible tells us, "we may become greater than angels.” The Egyptians record stories of the "Star Walkers,” occasional individuals who, like Enoch, traveled "beyond the Great Eye of Orion" and returned, to walk like gods amongst men. Despite the bleaching of semi-divine beings from modern consciousness, could it be possible, as the ancient texts insist, we are destined to "become as gods"? Are the Mayan "Lords of Light" and the Egyptian/Tibetan "Shining Ones" really a higher form of human?

According to many Earth legends, such beings are supposed to return regularly, at the beginning and end of each time cycle, the 13,000 year half-point of our solar system's 26,000 year zodiacal orbit around galaxy centre. Because of conditions on our galactic orbit, these 13,000 year intervals or "worlds,” seem to be separated by cataclysmic upheaval.

According to the "calendar in stone" of the Great Pyramid, which describes the so-called "Phoenix Cycle" of our galactic orbit, the present time period ends (converted to our present calendar) in the year 2012 AD. The Greek word PHOENIX, derived from the Egyptian word, PA-HANOK, actually means, "The House of Enoch.”

The Enochian knowledge suggests these regular cataclysmic changes act as an evolutionary agent provocateur, to quicken the resident life forms to the next evolutionary phase, prior to exodus from the womb planet. Human evolution may proceed more rapidly than previously thought. The evidence now appearing records civilisations before us who mastered the physical continuum and progressed beyond this world.

The discoveries emerging from Egypt, describe the existence of a world wide pyramid temple system in prehistory, mounted like antennae on the key energy meridians, which were employed by ancient priest-scientists as a musical system to stabilize the tectonic plates of the planet...cataclysmic geology at it's finest. From the mother tongue word JEDAIAH, meaning "the way of the Word" or "the power of the Word,” the ancient JEDAI priests used the language of Light to tune the planet like a giant harmonic bell.

- By Paul White

Archaeological Discovery in N. China Challenges Theory on Origin of Man

November 9 (Xinhuanet) -- The latest archaeological discovery at the Old Stone Age ruins in Yangyuan County, north China's Hebei Province, proves that human activities began in eastAsia some 2 million years ago, archaeological sources said.

Chinese archaeologists unearthed more than 800 stone tools and animal skeletons left over by the ancients at historical ruins in a stratum dating back around 2 million years.

Xie Fei, a research fellow with the Hebei Provincial Relics Research Institute, said that the latest discovery at the Majuangou ruins in the Nihewan Basin proves that the date of the early stage human activities in east Asia is very close to the time of similar ruins discovered in Africa. Xie, who has conducted archaeological research at Nihewan for 18 years, said that it is a question that deserves discussion among international archaeological circles: whether human beings migrated to east Asia at a fast speed at an early stage, or there was another origin place of man in the world.

Palaeoanthropology materials so far available show that the humans originated from Africa, and the earliest Old Stone Age ruins so far unearthed in the world are located in Ethiopia, dating back some 2.33 million years.

For a long period of time, many scientists believed that it was impossible for east Asia to have human activities some 2 million years ago.

Xie and his colleagues conducted a month-long excavation at the Majuangou ruins from September to October, and unearthed a great number of stone cores, flakes, hammers and scrapers, and bones of elephants, deer, horses and other animals.

More than 100 kilometers from Beijing, the over 9,000-square-kilometer Nihewan basin has very thick deposits of rivers, lakes and yellow earth, which contain rich fossils of mammals and animals of other species. It has been a key excavation area of early man in east Asia since the 1920s.

Chinese scientists have discovered a non-stop list of ruins of the Old Stone Age belonging to the Pleistocene epoch at the basin.

The Majuangou site is divided into three cultural layers. The latest excavation was carried out in the third layer that was discovered in the spring of last year.

Archaeologists said that the ruins unearthed were of a site where the ancient people were preparing food, adding that marks of strikes by stone tools and scrapers were found on most of the animal bones discovered at the site, and a firestone scraper was found on a rib of an animal skeleton.

The excavated stone tools prove that the manufacturers were highly capable of distinguishing stone materials and very skilled at processing stone tools, archaeologist Xie said.

The ruins reveal that this group of ancient people had reached a high level, Xie added.

Early this year, Zhu Rixiang, a research fellow with the geological research institute under the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), determined that the Xiaochangliang ruins at Nihewan Basin date back 1.36 million years, thus shifting back theknown date of the ancients' activities in China by 360,000 years.

Zhu spent three years studying the date of the Xiaochangliang ruins.

The third layer of the Majuangou ruins, where the latest archaeological excavation was conducted, is more than 30 meters lower than the Xiaochangliang ruins.

Judging from the comparison between the ancient geomagnetic dating materials and rock formation, researcher Wei Qi, of the ancient vertebrate and the ancients research institute under the CAS, said that the third layer of the Majuangou ruins is at least 1.9 million years old and possibly even more than 2 million years in age.

Beijing University professor Lu Zun'e, who made an on-the-spot investigation at the excavation site, confirmed that the date of the latest unearthed ruins is earlier than the date of the Xiaochangliang ruins.

Based on the latest discovery, archaeologist Xie Fei concluded that more earlier human activities might have existed in the Nihewan Basin.

Next year, Chinese archaeologists will make further and large scale excavations at the Majuangou ruins and other ruins in the Nihewan Basin, according to Xie.

Archeological Coverups

Most of us are familiar with the last scene in the popular Indiana Jones archeological adventure film RAIDERS OF THE LOST ARK in which an important historical artifact, the Ark of the Covenant from the Temple in Jerusalem, is locked in a crate and put in a giant warehouse, never to be seen again, thus ensuring that no history books will have to be rewritten and no history professor will have to revise the lecture that he has been giving for the last forty years.

While the film was fiction, the scene in which an important ancient relic is buried in a warehouse is uncomfortably close to reality for many researchers. To those who investigate allegations of archaeological cover-ups, there are disturbing indications that the most important archaeological institute in the United States, the Smithsonian Institute, an independent federal agency, has been actively suppressing some of the most interesting and important archaeological discoveries made in the Americas.

The Vatican has been long accused of keeping artifacts and ancient books in their vast cellars, without allowing the outside world access to them. These secret treasures, often of a controversial historical or religious nature, are allegedly suppressed by the Catholic Church because they might damage the church's credibility, or perhaps cast their official texts in doubt. Sadly, there is overwhelming evidence that something very similar is happening with the Smithsonian Institution. The cover-up and alleged suppression of archaeological evidence began in late 1881 when John Wesley Powell, the geologist famous for exploring the Grand Canyon, appointed Cyrus Thomas as the director of the Eastern Mound Division of the Smithsonian Institution's Bureau of Ethnology. When Thomas came to the Bureau of Ethnology he was a "pronounced believer in the existence of a race of Mound Builders, distinct from the American Indians. However, John Wesley Powell, the director of the Bureau of Ethnology, a very sympathetic man toward the American Indians, had lived with the peaceful Winnebago Indians of Wisconsin for many years as a youth and felt that American Indians were unfairly thought of as primitive and savage.

The Smithsonian began to promote the idea that Native Americans, at that time being exterminated in the Indian Wars, were descended from advanced civilizations and were worthy of respect and protection. They also began a program of suppressing any archaeological evidence that lent credence to the school of thought known as Diffusionism, a school which believes that throughout history there has been widespread dispersion of culture and civilisation via contact by ship and major trade routes. The Smithsonian opted for the opposite school, known as Isolationism. Isolationism holds that most civilisations are isolated from each other and that there has been very little contact between them, especially those that are separated by bodies of water. In this intellectual war that started in the 1880s, it was held that even contact between the civilisations of the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys were rare, and certainly these civilisations did not have any contact with such advanced cultures as the Mayas, Toltecs, or Aztecs in Mexico and Central America. By Old World standards this is an extreme, and even ridiculous idea, considering that the river system reached to the Gulf of Mexico and these civilizations were as close as the opposite shore of the gulf.

It was like saying that cultures in the Black Sea area could not have had contact with the Mediterranean. When the contents of many ancient mounds and pyramids of the Midwest were examined, it was shown that the history of the Mississippi River Valleys was that of an ancient and sophisticated culture that had been in contact with Europe and other areas. Not only that, the contents of many mounds revealed burials of huge men, sometimes seven or eight feet tall, in full amour with swords and sometimes huge treasures.

For instance, when Spiro Mound in Oklahoma was excavated in the 1930's, a tall man in full armour was discovered along with a pot of thousands of pearls and other artefacts, the largest such treasure so far documented. The whereabouts of the man in armour is unknown and it is quite likely that it eventually was taken to the Smithsonian Institution.

In a private conversation with a well-known historical researcher (who shall remain nameless), I was told that a former employee of the Smithsonian, who was dismissed for defending the view of diffusionism in the Americas (i.e. the heresy that other ancient civilisations may have visited the shores of North and South America during the many millenia before Columbus), alleged that the Smithsonian at one time had actually taken a barge full of unusual artefacts out into the Atlantic and dumped them in the ocean. Though the idea of the Smithsonian covering up a valuable archaeological find is difficult to accept for some, there is, sadly, a great deal of evidence to suggest that the Smithsonian Institution has knowingly covered up and 'lost' important archaeological relics. The STONEWATCH NEWSLETTER of the Gungywamp Society in Connecticut, which researches megalithic sites in New England, had a curious story in their Winter 1992 issue about stone coffins discovered in 1892 in Alabama which were sent to the Smithsonian Institution and then 'lost'. According to the newsletter, researcher Frederick J. Pohl wrote an intriguing letter in 1950 to the late Dr. T.C. Lethbridge, a British archaeologist.

The letter from Pohl stated, "A professor of geology sent me a reprint (of the) Smithsonian Institution, THE CRUMF BURIAL CAVE by Frank Burns, US Geological Survey, from the report of the US National Museum for 1892, pp 451-454, 1984. In the Crumf Cave, southern branch of the Warrior River, in Murphy's Valley, Blount County, Alabama, accessible from Mobile Bay by river, were coffins of wood hollowed out by fire, aided by stone or copper chisels. Either of these coffins were taken to the Smithsonian. They were about 7.5 feet long, 14" to 18" wide, 6" to 7" deep. Lids open. "I wrote recently to the Smithsonian, and received a reply March 11th from F.M. Setzler, Head Curator of Department of Anthropology (He said) 'We have not been able to find the specimens in our collections, though records show that they were received." David Barron, President of the Gungywamp Society was eventually told by the Smithsonian in 1992 that the coffins were actually wooden troughs and that they could not be viewed anyway because they were housed in an asbestos-contaminated warehouse. This warehouse was to be closed for the next ten years and no one was allowed in except the Smithsonian personnel!

Ivan T. Sanderson, a well-known zoologist and frequent guest on Johnny Carson's TONIGHT SHOW in the 1960s (usually with an exotic animal with a pangolin or a lemur), once related a curious story about a letter he received regarding an engineer who was stationed on the Aleutian island of Shemya during World War II. While building an airstrip, his crew bulldozed a group of hills and discovered under several sedimentary layers what appeared to be human remains. The Alaskan mound was in fact a graveyard of gigantic human remains, consisting of crania and long leg bones. The crania measured from 22 to 24 inches from base to crown. Since an adult skull normally measures about eight inches from back to front, such a large crania would imply an immense size for a normally proportioned human. Furthermore, every skull was said to have been neatly trepanned (a process of cutting a hole in the upper portion of the skull).

In fact, the habit of flattening the skull of an infant and forcing it to grow in an elongated shape was a practice used by ancient Peruvians, the Mayas, and the Flathead Indians of Montana. Sanderson tried to gather further proof, eventually receiving a letter from another member of the unit who confirmed the report. The letters both indicated that the Smithsonian Institution had collected the remains, yet nothing else was heard. Sanderson seemed convinced that the Smithsonian Institution had received the bizarre relics, but wondered why they would not release the data. He asks, " it that these people cannot face rewriting all the textbooks?"

The Acambaro Discoveries

In 1944 an accidental discovery of an even more controversial nature was made by Waldemar Julsrud at Acambaro, Mexico. Acambaro is in the state of Guanajuato, 175 miles northwest of Mexico City. The strange archaeological site there yielded over 33,500 objects of ceramic, stone, including jade; and knives of obsidian (sharper than steel and still used today in heart surgery). Jalsrud, a prominent local German merchant, also found statues ranging from less than an inch to six feet in length depicting great reptiles, some of them in ACTIVE ASSOCIATION with humans - generally eating them, but in some bizarre statuettes an erotic association was indicated. To observers many of these creatures resembled dinosaurs. Jalsrud crammed this collection into twelve rooms of his expanded house. There startling representations of Negroes, Orientals, and bearded Caucasians were included as were motifs of Egyptians, Sumerian and other ancient non-hemispheric civilisations, as well as portrayals of Bigfoot and aquatic monsterlike creatures, weird human-animal mixtures, and a host of other inexplicable creations. Teeth from an extinct Ice Age horse, the skeleton of a mammoth, and a number of human skulls were found at the same site as the ceramic artefacts. Radio-carbon dating in the laboratories of the University of Pennsylvania and additional tests using the thermoluminescence method of dating pottery were performed to determine the age of the objects. Results indicated the objects were made about 6,500 years ago, around 4,500 BC. A team of experts at another university, shown Jalrud's half-dozen samples but unaware of their origin, ruled out the possibility that they could have been modern reproductions. However, they fell silent when told of their controversial source. In 1952, in an effort to debunk this weird collection which was gaining a certain amount of fame, American archaeologist Charles C. Di Peso claimed to have minutely examined the then 32,000 pieces within not more than four hours spent at the home of Julsrud. In a forthcoming book, long delayed by continuing developments in his investigation, archaeological investigator John H. Tierney, who has lectured on the case for decades, points out that to have done that DiPeso would have had to have inspected 133 pieces per minute steadily for four hours, whereas in actuality, it would have required weeks merely to have separated the massive jumble of exhibits and arranged them properly for a valid evaluation. Tierney, who collaborated with the later Professor Hapgood, the late William N. Russell, and others in the investigation, charges that the Smithsonian Institution and other archaeological authorities conducted a campaign of disinformation against the discoveries. The Smithsonian had, early in the controversy, dismissed the entire Acambaro collection as an elaborate hoax. Also, utilising the Freedom of Information Act, Tierney discovered that practically the entirety of the Smithsonian's Julsrud case files are missing.

Professor Charles Hapgood

After two expeditions to the site in 1955 and 1968, Professor Charles Hapgood, a professor of history and anthropology at the University of New Hampshire, recorded the results of his 18-year investigation of Acambaro in a privately printed book entitled MYSTERY IN ACAMBARO. Hapgood was initially an open-minded skeptic

concerning the collection but became a believer after his first visit in 1955, at which time he witnessed some of the figures being excavated and even dictated to the diggers where he wanted them to dig. Adding to the mind-boggling aspects of this controversy is the fact that the Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, through the late Director of Pre-Hispanic Monuments, Dr. Eduardo Noguera, (who, as head of an official investigating team at the site, issued a report which Tierney will be publishing), admitted "the apparent scientific legality with which these objects were found." Despite evidence of their own eyes, however, officials declared that because of the objects 'fantastic' nature, they had to have been a hoax played on Julsrud! A disappointed but ever-hopeful Julsrud died. His house was sold and the collection put in storage. The collection is not currently open to the public.

Egyptian Tombs in Arizona

Perhaps the most amazing suppression of all is the excavation of an Egyptian tomb by the Smithsonian itself in Arizona. A lengthy front page story of the PHOENIX GAZETTE on 5 April 1909 (follows this article), gave a highly detailed report of the discovery and excavation of a rock-cut vault by an expedition led by a Professor S. A. Jordan of the Smithsonian. The Smithsonian, however, claims to have absolutely no knowledge of the discovery or its discoverers. The World Explorers Club decided to check on this story by calling the Smithsonian in Washington D.C., though we felt there was little chance of getting any real information. After speaking briefly to an operator, we were transferred to a Smithsonian staff archaeologist, and a woman's voice came on the phone and identified herself. I told her that I was investigating a story from a 1909 Phoenix newspaper article about the Smithsonian Institution's having excavated rock-cut vaults in the Grand Canyon where Egyptian artefacts had been discovered, and whether the Smithsonian Institution could give me any more information on the subject. "Well, the first thing I can tell you, before we go any further," she said, "is that no Egyptian artefacts of any kind have ever been found in North or South America. Therefore, I can tell you that the Smithsonian Institute has never been involved in any such excavations." She was quite helpful and polite but, in the end, knew nothing. Neither she nor anyone else with whom I spoke could find any record of the discovery or either G. E. Kinkaid and Professor S. A. Jordan. Is the Smithsonian Institution covering up an archaeological discovery of immense importance? If this story is true it would radically change the current view that there was no transoceanic contact in pre-Columbian times, and that all American Indians, on both continents, are descended from Ice Age explorers who came across the Bering Strait. (Any information on G. E. Kinkaid and Professor S. A. Jordan, or their alleged discoveries, that readers may have would be greatly appreciated...write to Childress at the World Explorers Club at the above address.) Is the idea that ancient Egyptians came to the Arizona area in the ancient past so objectionable and preposterous that it must be covered up? Perhaps the Smithsonian Institution is more interested in maintaining the status quo than rocking the boat with astonishing new discoveries that overturn previously accepted academic teachings.

Historian and linguist Carl Hart, editor of WORLD EXPLORER, then obtained a hiker's map of the Grand Canyon from a bookstore in Chicago. Poring over the map, we were amazed to see that much of the area on the north side of the canyon has Egyptian names. The area around Ninety-four Mile Creek and Trinity Creek had areas (rock formations, apparently) with names like Tower of Set, Tower of Ra, Horus Temple, Osiris Temple, and Isis Temple. In the Haunted Canyon area were such names as the Cheops Pyramid, the Buddha Cloister, Buddha Temple, Manu Temple and Shiva Temple. Was there any relationship between these places and the alleged Egyptian discoveries in the Grand Canyon? We called a state archaeologist at the Grand Canyon, and were told that the early explorers had just liked Egyptian and Hindu names, but that it was true that this area was off limits to hikers or other visitors, "because of dangerous caves." Indeed, this entire area with the Egyptian and Hindu place names in the Grand Canyon is a forbidden zone - no one is allowed into this large area. We could only conclude that this was the area where the vaults were located. Yet today, this area is curiously off-limits to all hikers and even, in large part, park personnel. I believe that the discerning reader will see that if only a small part of the "Smithsoniangate" evidence is true, then our most hallowed archaeological institution has been actively involved in suppressing evidence for advanced American cultures, evidence for ancient voyages of various cultures to North America, evidence for anomalistic giants and other oddball artefacts, and evidence that tends to disprove the official dogma that is now the history of North America. The Smithsonian's Board of Regents still refuses to open its meetings to the news media or the public. If Americans were ever allowed inside the 'nation's attic', as the Smithsonian has been called, what skeletons might they find?

Explorations in the Grand Canyon: Mysteries of Immense Rich Cavern being brought to light

The latest news of the progress of the explorations of what is now regarded by scientists as not only the oldest archeological discovery in the United States, but one of the most valuable in the world, which was mentioned some time ago in the Gazette, was brought to the city yesterday by G. E. Kinkaid, the explorer who found the great underground citadel of the Grand Canyon during a trip from Green River, Wyoming, down the Colorado, in a wooden boat, to Yuma, several months ago. According to the story related to the Gazette by Mr. Kinkaid, the archaelogists of the Smithsonian Institute, which is financing the expeditions, have made discoveries which almost conclusively prove that the race which inhabited this mysterious cavern, hewn in solid rock by human hands, was of oriental origin, possibly from Egypt, tracing back to Ramses. If their theories are borne out by the translation of the tablets engraved with heiroglyphics, the mystery of the prehistoric peoples of North America, their ancient arts, who they were and whence they came, will be solved. Egypt and the Nile, and Arizona and the Colorado will be linked by a historical chain running back to ages which staggers the wildest fancy of the fiction.

A Thorough Examination under the direction of Prof. S. A. Jordan, the Smithsonian Institute is now prosecuting the most thorough explorations, which will be continued until the last link in the chain is forged. Nearly a mile underground, about 1480 feet below the surface, the long main passage has been delved into, to find another mammoth chamber from which radiates scores of passageways, like the spokes of a wheel. Several hundred rooms have been discovered, reached by passageways

running from the main passage, one of them having been explored for 854 feet and another 634 feet. The recent finds include articles which have never been known as native to this country, and doubtless they had their origin in the orient. War-weapons, copper instruments, sharp-edged and hard as steel, indicate the high state of civilization reached by these strange people. So interested have the scientists become that preparations are being made to equip the camp for extensive studies, and the force will be increased to thirty or forty persons. Mr. Kinkaid was the first white child born in Idaho and has been an explorer and hunter all his life, thirty years having been in the service of the Smithsonian Institute. Even briefly recounted, his history sounds fabulous, almost grotesque.

"First, I would impress that the cavern is nearly inaccessible. The entrance is 1,486 feet down the sheer canyon wall. It is located on government land and no visitor will be allowed there under penalty of trespass. The scientists wish to work unmolested, without fear of archeological discoveries being disturbed by curio or relic hunters.

A trip there would be fruitless, and the visitor would be sent on his way. The story of how I found the cavern has been related, but in a paragraph: I was journeying down the Colorado river in a boat alone, looking for mineral. Some forty-two miles up the river from the El Tovar Crystal canyon, I saw on the east wall, stains in the sedimentary formation about 2,000 feet above the river bed. There was no trail to this point, but I finally reached it with great difficulty. Above a shelf which hid it from view from the river, was the mouth of the cave. There are steps leading from this entrance some thirty yards to what was, at the time the cavern was inhabited, the level of the river. When I saw the chisel marks on the wall inside the entrance, I became interested, securing my gun and went in. During that trip I went back several hundred feet along the main passage till I came to the crypt in which I discovered the mummies. One of these I stood up and photographed by flashlight. I gathered a number of relics, which I carried down the Colorado to Yuma, from whence I shipped them to Washington with details of the discovery. Following this, the explorations were undertaken.

The Passages

"The main passageway is about 12 feet wide, narrowing to nine feet toward the farther end. About 57 feet from the entrance, the first side-passages branch off to the right and left, along which, on both sides, are a number of rooms about the size of ordinary living rooms of today, though some are 30 by 40 feet square. These are entered by oval-shaped doors and are ventilated by round air spaces through the walls into the passages. The walls are about three feet six inches in thickness. The passages are chiseled or hewn as straight as could be laid out by an engineer. The ceilings of many of the rooms converge to a center. The side-passages near the entrance run at a sharp angle from the main hall, but toward the rear they gradually reach a right angle in direction.

The Shrine

"Over a hundred feet from the entrance is the cross-hall, several hundred feet long, in which are found the idol, or image, of the people's god, sitting cross-legged, with a lotus flower or lily in each hand. The cast of the face is oriental, and the carving this cavern. The idol almost resembles Buddha, though the scientists are not certain as to what religious worship it represents. Taking into consideration everything found thus far, it is possible that this worship most resembles the ancient people of Tibet.

Surrounding this idol are smaller images, some very beautiful in form; others crooked-necked and distorted shapes, symbolical, probably, of good and evil. There are two large cactus with protruding arms, one on each side of the dais on which the god squats. All this is carved out of hard rock resembling marble. In the opposite corner of this cross-hall were found tools of all descriptions, made of copper. These people undoubtedly knew the lost art of hardening this metal, which has been sought by chemicals for centuries without result. On a bench running around the workroom was some charcoal and other material probably used in the process. There is also slag and stuff similar to matte, showing that these ancients smelted ores, but so far no trace of where or how this was done has been discovered, nor the origin of the ore. "Among the other finds are vases or urns and cups of copper and gold, made very artistic in design. The pottery work includes enameled ware and glazed vessels. Another passageway leads to granaries such as are found in the oriental temples. They contain seeds of various kinds. One very large storehouse has not yet been entered, as it is twelve feet high and can be reached only from above. Two copper hooks extend on the edge, which indicates that some sort of ladder was attached. These granaries are rounded, as the materials of which they are constructed, I think, is a very hard cement. A gray metal is also found in this cavern, which puzzles the scientists, for its identity has not been established. It resembles platinum. Strewn promiscuously over the floor everywhere are what people call "cats eye', a yellow stone of no great value. Each one is engraved with the head of the Malay type.

The Hieroglyphics

"On all the urns, or walls over doorways, and tablets of stone which were found by the image are the mysterious hieroglyphics, the key to which the Smithsonian Institute hopes yet to discover. The engraving on the tables probably has something to do with the religion of the people. Similar hieroglyphics have been found in southern Arizona. Among the pictorial writings, only two animals are found. One is of prehistoric type.

The Crypt

"The tomb or crypt in which the mummies were found is one of the largest of the chambers, the walls slanting back at an angle of about 35 degrees. On these are tiers of mummies, each one occupying a separate hewn shelf. At the head of each is a small bench, on which is found copper cups and pieces of broken swords. Some of the mummies are covered with clay, and all are wrapped in a bark fabric. The urns or cups on the lower tiers are crude, while as the higher shelves are reached, the urns are finer in design, showing a later stage of civilization. It is worthy of note that all the mummies examined so far have proved to be male, no children or females being

buried here. This leads to the belief that this exterior section was the warriors' barracks. "Among the discoveries no bones of animals have been found, no skins, no clothing, no bedding. Many of the rooms are bare but for water vessels. One room, about 40 by 700 feet, was probably the main dining hall, for cooking utensils are found here. What these people lived on is a problem, though it is presumed that they came south in the winter and farmed in the valleys, going back north in the summer.

Upwards of 50,000 people could have lived in the caverns comfortably. One theory is that the present Indian tribes found in Arizona are descendants of the serfs or slaves of the people which inhabited the cave. Undoubtedly, a good many thousands of years before the Christian era, a people lived here which reached a high stage of civilization. The chronology of human history is full of gaps. Professor Jordan is much enthused over the discoveries and believes that the find will prove of incalculable value in archeological work. "One thing I have not spoken of, may be of interest. There is one chamber of the passageway to which is not ventilated, and when we approached it a deadly, snaky smell struck us. Our light would not penetrate the gloom, and until stronger ones are available we will not know what the chamber contains. Some say snakes, but other boo-hoo this idea and think it may contain a deadly gas or chemicals used by the ancients. No sounds are heard, but it smells snaky just the same. The whole underground installation gives one of shaky nerves the creeps. The gloom is like a weight on one's shoulders and our flashlights and candles only make the darkness blacker. Imagination can revel in conjectures and ungodly daydreams back through the ages that have elapsed till the mind reels dizzily in space.

An Indian Legend

In connection with this story, it is notable that among the Hopi Indians the tradition is told that their ancestors once lived in an underworld in the Grand Canyon till dissension arose between the good and the bad, the people of one heart and the people of two hearts. Machetto, who was their chief, counseled them to leave the underworld, but there was no way out. The chief then caused a tree to grow up and pierce the roof of the underworld, and then the people of one heart climbed out. They tarried by Paisisvai (Red River), which is the Colorado, and grew grain and corn. They sent out a message to the Temple of the Sun, asking the blessing of peace, good will and rain for people of one heart. That messenger never returned, but today at the Hopi villages at sundown can be seen the old men of the tribe out on the housetops gazing toward the sun, looking for the messenger. When he returns, their lands and ancient dwelling place will be restored to them. That is the tradition. Among the engravings of animals in the cave is seen the image of a heart over the spot where it is located. The legend was learned by W. E. Rollins, the artist, during a year spent with the Hopi Indians. There are two theories of the origin of the Egyptians. One is that they came from Asia; another that the racial cradle was in the upper Nile region. Heeren, an Egyptologist, believed in the Indian origin of the Egyptians. The discoveries in the Grand Canyon may throw further light on human evolution and prehistoric ages – David Hatcher Childress

Ancient City Found Irradiated From Atomic Blast

You probably know something of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. The remains of these ancient cities are in modern day Pakistan. These were the key centers of the Indus Valley civilization. These also appear to have suddenly sprung up with no clear-cut traces of having evolved from primitive beginnings.

The ruins of these ancient Indus Valley cities are immense. They are thought to have contained well over a million people each. You’d be surprised at what’s been dug up here. In place was a system of town planning with straight streets and rectangular blocks, as well as wide main streets like modern boulevards. There were also heated public baths. At Mohenjo-Daro there has been uncovered a network of canals, pipes and sewers, with inspection peepholes, ingeniously devised. This city enjoyed an efficient drainage system and a highly efficient piped water supply, with pipes and drains under every street. And there was a sewage system from each house, as good as that of the present day. Jewels, rings, bracelets and necklaces of gold, silver and ivory, were worn. They were kept in elegant silver caskets and so well finished and so highly polished that they might have come out of a Bond Street jewelers.

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The Ica Stones

(The mysterious collection of Dr. Javier Cabrera and the implications of the message of the stones)

In the town of Ica, Peru there is a unique collection of over 11,000 stones that were collected, organized, and analyzed by Dr. Javier Cabrera Darquea. His home has become a museum for these strange artifacts, which are engraved with scenes of an ancient people, and are believed to be an encyclopedia of ancient knowledge. Amazingly, some of the scenes show things which most mainstream archeologists believe to be impossible, including man interacting with dinosaurs, performing complex medical procedures (brain surgeries, heart transplants, genetic experimentation, etc.), and depictions of the Earth's continents as they were millions of years in the past. An unfortunate (and untrue) branding of the stones as a hoax early on has dissuaded what little genuine scientific curiosity made it past the barriers of the status quo. However, it is the opinion of Dr. Cabrera, myself, and others that the stones are indeed genuine, and that their antiquity is proof of a previously unknown ancient civilization whose existence has been lost to history. All that remains is a record of their knowledge, carved in stone (the only medium that could survive for thousands of years). If the message of the stones can be fully deciphered and accepted, it will change our understanding of ancient man, and re-write the history books in a big way.

- (From:

The Story of Lemuria

Lemuria and Mu are interchangeable names given to a lost land believed to have been located somewhere in either the southern Pacific or Indian Oceans. This ancient continent was apparently the home of an advanced and highly spiritual culture, perhaps the mother race of all mankind, but it sank beneath the waves many thousands of years ago as the result of a geological cataclysm of some kind.

The thousands of rocky islands scattered throughout the Pacific, including Easter Island, Tahiti, Hawaii and Samoa, have been claimed by some to be the only surviving remains of this once great continent. The theory of a lost continent in this area has been put forward by many different people, most notably in the mid 19th century by scientists in order to explain the unusual distribution of various animals and plants around the Indian and Pacific Oceans.

Madame Blavatsky

In the late 19th century occultist Madame Blavatsky reincarnated the idea of Lemuria as a lost continent / spiritual homeland and influenced a host of subsequent occultists and mystics including well known American psychic healer and Prophet Edgar Cayce. The popularisation of Lemuria / Mu as a purely physical place began in the 20th century with ex-British army officer Colonel James Churchward, and the idea still has many adherents today. But is there any physical evidence to back up these claims of an ancient continent beneath the Pacific or Indian Ocean? Or should these ‘lost homeland’ stories be interpreted in another way entirely, perhaps as the symbol of a mythical vanished ‘Golden Age’ of man?

The Land of Mu

The idea of a lost continent known as ‘Mu’ in the Pacific Ocean does not actually have a particularly long history, neither is it mentioned specifically in any ancient mythologies as some writers have suggested. The title ‘Mu’ originated with eccentric amateur archaeologist Augustus le Plongeon (1826-1908), who was the first to make photographical records of the ruins of the archaeological site of Chichen Itza in Yucatán, Mexico. Plongeon’s credibility was badly damaged by his attempted translation of a Mayan book known as the ‘Troana Codex’ (also known as the ‘Madrid Codex’).

In his books Sacred Mysteries Among the Mayans and Quiches (1886) and Queen Moo and the Egyptian Sphinx (1896) Plongeon interpreted part of the text of the Troana Codex as revealing that the Maya of Yucatán were the ancestors of the Egyptians and many other civilisations. He also believed that an ancient continent, which he called Mu, had been destroyed by a volcanic eruption, the survivors of this cataclysm founding the Mayan civilisation. Plongeon equates Mu with Atlantis and states that a ‘Queen Moo’ originally from Atlantis, travelled to Egypt where she became known as Isis, and founded the Egyptian civilisation. However, Plongeon’s interpretation of the Mayan book is considered by experts in Mayan archaeology and history as completely erroneous, indeed much of what he interpreted as hieroglyphics turned out to be ornamental design.

‘Lemuria’, the alternative name for the lost continent, also originated in the nineteenth century. Ernst Heinrich Haeckel (1834-1919), a German naturalist and supporter of Darwin, proposed that a land bridge spanning the Indian Ocean separating Madagascar from India could explain the widespread distribution of lemurs, small, primitive tree-dwelling mammals found in Africa, Madagascar, India and the East Indian archipelago. More bizarrely, Haeckel also suggested that lemurs were the ancestors of the human race and that this land bridge was the “probable cradle of the human race.”

Other well-known scientists, such as the evolutionist T. H. Huxley and the naturalist Alfred Russell Wallace, had no doubt about the existence of a huge continent in the Pacific millions of years previously, which had been destroyed in a disastrous earthquake that submerged it beneath the waves, much as Atlantis was thought to have been drowned.

Before the discovery of continental drift it was not unusual in the mid to late 19th century for scientists to propose submerged land masses and land bridges to explain the distribution of the world’s flora and fauna. In 1864, the English zoologist Philip Lutley Sclater (1829-1913) gave the hypothetical continent the name ‘Lemuria’ in an article ‘The Mammals of Madagascar’ in The Quarterly Journal of Science, and since then it has stuck.

The Geologists’ View

Zoologists and geologists now explain the distribution of lemurs and other plants and animals in the area of the Pacific and Indian Oceans to be the result of plate tectonics and continental drift. The theory of plate tectonics, and it is still a theory, affirms that moving plates of the Earth’s crust supported on less rigid mantle rocks causes continental drift, volcanic and seismic activity, and the formation of mountain chains. The concept of continental drift was first proposed by German scientist Alfred Wegener in 1912, but the theory did not gain general acceptance in the scientific community for another 50 years.

With this understanding of plate tectonics geologists now regard the theory of a sunken continent beneath the Pacific as an impossibility. They also point out that theories of lost lands in the Pacific mostly originate in the 19th century, when knowledge of the area was limited and well before the Pacific sea floor had been mapped.

Blavatsky’s Lemuria

The idea of Lemuria as something more than a physical place, or at least somewhere which had been inhabited by non-human entities before the appearance of man, derives from the writings of colourful Russian occultist Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1831-1891). Blavatsky was the co-founder, together with lawyer Henry Steel Olcott, of the Theosophical Society, in New York in 1875. The Society was an esoteric order designed to study the mystical teachings of both Christianity and Eastern religions.

In her massive tome The Secret Doctrine (1888) Blavatsky describes a history originating millions of years ago with the ‘Lords of Flame’ and goes on to discusses five ‘Root Races’ which have existed on earth, each one dying out in an earth-shattering cataclysm. The third of these Root Races she called the ‘Lemurian’, which lived a million years ago, and who were bizarre telepathic giants who kept dinosaurs as pets.

The Lemurians eventually drowned when their continent was submerged beneath the Pacific Ocean. The progeny of the Lemurians was the fourth Root Race, the human Atlanteans, who were brought down by their use of black magic, their continent of Atlantis sinking beneath the waves 850,000 years ago. Present humanity represents the Fifth Root Race.

Blavatsky envisioned her Lemuria as covering a vast area. In her own words it stretched from

...the foot of the Himalayas, which separated it from the inland sea rolling its waves over what is now Tibet, Mongolia, and the great desert of Schamo (Gobi); from Chittagong, westward to Hardwar, and eastward to Assam. From thence, it stretched South across what is known to us as Southern India, Ceylon, and Sumatra; then embracing on its way, as we go South, Madagascar on its right hand and Australia and Tasmania on its left, it ran down to within a few degrees of the Antarctic Circle; when, from Australia, an inland region on the Mother Continent in those ages, it extended far into the Pacific Ocean...

Blavatsky also describes survivors of the catastrophic destruction of Lemuria escaping to become the ancestors of some of the Aboriginal tribes of Australia. She maintained that she took all of her information regarding Lemuria from ‘The Book of Dzyan’, supposed to have been written in Atlantis and shown to her by the Indian adepts known as ‘Mahatmas’.

Madame Blavatsky never claimed to have discovered Lemuria; in fact she refers to Philip Schlater coining the name Lemuria, in her writings. It has to be said that The Secret Doctrine is an extremely difficult book, a complex mixture of Eastern and Western cosmologies, mystical ramblings and esoteric wisdom, much of it not meant to be taken literally. Blavatsky’s is the first ‘occult’ interpretation of Lemuria, but on one level it should not be equated with the physical continent later proposed by Churchward. What Blavatsky and other occultists since have suggested concerning Lemuria could be partly interpreted as an ideal spiritual condition of the soul, a kind of spiritual-historical vision.

Nevertheless, there are some psychics and prophets who even today regard the existence of ancient Lemuria / Mu as a physical reality. Indeed, there are a few who when ‘hypnotically regressed’ have recalled former lives as citizens on the doomed continent.

Lemuria and Australia

The writings of Blavatsky and other Theosophists about Lemuria, and the idea of Australia as part of this ancient lost continent and the scene of a lost golden age, had a significant influence on mystics and occultists in the country at the end of the 19th century. Queensland-born novelist Rosa Campbell Praed represented Australia as the last remnant of ancient Lemuria and believed the myth of the lost continent to be based on fact. In Praed’s case, she used the theosophical idea of Lemuria to present an idealised primeval history of Australia, a land very different to the Queensland frontier country wracked by racial violence she had witnessed first-hand as a child. Other evidence for this fascination with ancient Lemuria comes in the series of Australian adventure of the 1890s known as “the Lemurian novels.” In The Last Lemurian, written in 1898 by historian of Australian exploration and adventure-romance novelist George Firth Scott, the narrator Dick Halwood discovers the remains of legendary Lemuria out in the Australian desert, in a plot involving reincarnation, pygmies, a bunyip-monster, and an occult Yellow Queen.

John David Hennessey’s An Australian Bush Track (1896) calls Lemuria ‘Zoo-Zoo land’, and locates it somewhere in northern Queensland. Its inhabitants, the Zoo-Zooans, are a “remnant of a great nation which came there from some part of the mainland of Asia,” but had lost all the arts of high civilisation they once possessed. The Lost Explorer (1890) by James Francis Hogan has Lemuria as ‘Malua’, located in the centre of Australia, and ruled by the cannibalistic Queen Mocata, the last survivor of a superior race that once lived in “the interior of the great southern continent.”

The idea that Australia was once part of this lost Eden has also influenced those of a more practical bent, and attempts have been made to locate traces of Lemurian civilisation on both the west and east coasts of Australia.

Aboriginal art, artefacts and mythology have also been used to identify the Aborigines as prehistoric remnants of the Lemurians (following Blavatsky again), who somehow escaped the devastation of 20,000 or so years ago. Indeed, in some Theosophical publications of the first quarter of the 20th century Aborigines were described as the last of the Lemurians. However, the Aborigines of Australia had already been established on the continent for at least 30,000 years at the time of the supposed destruction of Lemuria, in fact they have perhaps the longest continuous cultural history of any people on Earth, so the theory of them having a Lemurian origin does not hold water.

Colonel James Churchward

The lost civilisation of Lemuria / Mu was brought dramatically back to public attention in 1931 with the publication of Colonel James Churchward’s bizarre The Lost Continent of Mu, the first in a series of five books by Churchward about the lost continent.

In the book he claimed that the lost continent of Mu had once extended from an area north of Hawaii southwards as far as Fiji and Easter Island. According to Churchward, Mu was the original Garden of Eden and a technologically advanced civilisation which boasted 64,000,000 inhabitants. Around 12,000 years ago Mu was wiped out by an earthquake and submerged beneath the Pacific. Apparently Atlantis, a colony of Mu, was destroyed in the same way a thousand years later. All the world’s major ancient civilisations, from the Babylonians and the Persians, to the Maya and the Egyptians, were the remains of the colonies of Mu.

Churchward claimed he received this sensational information when, as a young officer in India during a famine in the 1880s, he became friendly with an Indian priest. This priest told Churchward that he and two cousins were the only survivors of a 70,000 year old esoteric order which originated on Mu itself. This order was known as the ‘Naacal Brotherhood’.

The priest showed Churchward a number of ancient tablets written by the Naacal Order in a forgotten ancient language, supposed to be the original language of mankind, which he taught the officer to read. Churchward later asserted that certain stone artefacts recovered in Mexico contained parts of the ‘Sacred Inspired Writings of Mu’, perhaps taking ideas from Augustus le Plongeon and his use of the Troana Codex to provide evidence for the existence of Mu.

Unfortunately, Churchward never produced any evidence to back up his exotic claims, he never published translations of the enigmatic Naacal tablets, and his books, though they still have many followers today, are perhaps better read as entertainment than factual studies of Lemuria / Mu.

Nan Madol

It was James Churchward who first posited the theory that the site of Nan Modal, on Pohnpei Island in the North Pacific Ocean, was one of the seven cities of ancient Mu / Lemuria.

The cyclopean ruins of Nan Modal, at one time a ceremonial centre covering 11 square miles, consist of around 90 small artificial islands built up out of a lagoon, and interlinked by a network of tidal canals. These islands, situated on the tidal flats southeast of Temwen Island, Micronesia, contain house foundations, sea walls – thirty feet tall in places, tunnels and burial vaults, all constructed entirely from prismatic basalt columns stacked crisscross like log cabins. These rocks weigh several tons on average, with the largest weighing 25 tons. What makes the construction all the more remarkable is that the stone had to be transported some distance to the site, as no quarries have been found nearby, though they do exist elsewhere on the island. A clue to how this feat was achieved are crystal basalt columns discovered at the bottom of the lagoon near Temwen Island and on the shores of other islets in the area, which would suggest that the stones were transported by raft. Modern Pohnpeians, on the other hand, believe the stones were flown over the island using black magic. Radio carbon dates and analysis of pottery from Nan Madol reveal that construction of the site began around 1200 CE, though the area may have been occupied from as early as 200 BCE. Such dates would certainly preclude any connection with Churchward’s Lemurians or their descendents.

At the beginning of the 13th century CE the island of Pohnpei is thought to have been conquered and unified by the mysterious ‘saudeleur’ dynasty, and it was then that the spectacular complex was constructed as a ceremonial and political seat for the new royal line. The saudeleur line was brought to an end in the 1500s by exiled Pohnpeian warrior, Isokelekel. The new chiefs, known as Nahnmwarki, occupied Nan Madol for a couple of hundred years, but by the 1800’s when the first Europeans arrived, the site was deserted. Why this happened remains one of the many mysteries of this incredible site.

The Kerguelen Continent

In the last twenty or so years submerged civilisations have once again been in the news due in particular to a number of intriguing underwater discoveries. In 1999 the Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Earth Sampling (JOIDES) Resolution research vessel made an amazing discovery drilling in an area of the southern Indian Ocean about 3,000 km to the southwest of Australia.

The researchers discovered that an underwater plateau about a third the size of Australia, known as the Kerguelen Plateau, was actually the remains of a lost continent, which sank beneath the waves around 20 million years ago. The team found fragments of wood, a seed, spores and pollen, in 90 million year old sediment, as well as types of rocks associated with explosive volcanism.

One of the many fascinating points about the Kerguelen Plateau is that it contains sedimentary rocks similar to those found in India and Australia, which indicates that they were at one time connected. Scientists believe that around 50 million years ago, the continent may have had tropical flora and fauna, including small dinosaurs. With further research planned, the fascinating puzzle of the Kerguelen Plateau may yet resurrect the Lemuria debate.

Yonaguni Island and the Gulf of Cambay

In 1985 off the southern coast of Yonaguni Island, the westernmost island of Japan, a Japanese dive tour operator discovered a previously unknown stepped pyramidal edifice. Shortly afterwards, Professor Masaki Kimura, a marine geologist at Ryukyu University in Okinawa, confirmed the existence of the 183m wide, 27m high structure.

This rectangular stone ziggurat, part of a complex of underwater stone structures in the area which resemble ramps, steps and terraces, is thought to date from somewhere between 3,000 to 8,000 years ago. Some researchers have suggested these ruins are the remains of a submerged civilisation – and that the structures represent perhaps the oldest architecture in the world. Connections with Lemuria and Atlantis have also been mentioned.

However, some geologists, such as Robert Schoch of Boston University, and others with knowledge of the area, insist that the underwater ‘buildings’ are natural, mainly the result of ocean erosion and coral reef settlements and similar to other known geological formations in the region. Furthermore, archaeologists also point out that no man-made tools or weapons have been recovered from the site, which would indicate human settlement.

In December 2000 a team from the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) claimed to have discovered the remains of a huge lost city 36 metres underwater in the Gulf of Cambay, off the western coast of India. A year later further acoustic imaging surveys were undertaken and evidence recorded for apparent human settlement at the site, which included the foundations of huge structures, pottery, sections of walls, beads, pieces of sculpture and human bone. One of the wooden finds supposedly from the city has given a radiocarbon date of 7500 BCE, which would make the site 4,000 years earlier than the oldest known civilisation in India.

Research is ongoing at this fascinating site, now known as the Gulf of Khambat Cultural Complex (GKCC), which if the dates are proved correct, may one day radically alter our understanding of the world’s first civilisations. However, it must be added that a number of marine geologists believe that the NIOT scientists have made serious errors in their interpretations of the sonar images obtained from the area. The opinion of these researchers is that the supposedly ancient ‘ruins’, shown as geometric patterns on the images, are natural rock formations and there is no evidence that the artefacts discovered in the area of the site, including the radio-carbon dated block of wood, are associated with it. The debate is still continuing among geologists, archaeologists and historians on this controversial discovery.

Whether any of these underwater finds in the Pacific and Indian Oceans prove to be the remains of forgotten civilisations or not, one thing is certain – man will always be searching for a lost homeland or a more spiritually satisfying ancient past. In this sense Lemuria or Mu will always be more than just a physical place.




by Constance Irwin

Much later Montezuma arrived with a company of kinsmen and chieftains. He indicated a low bench richly embroidered in gold, and asked Cortes to be seated. Nearby stood the interpreter Cortes had acquired shortly after landing: the beauteous and intelligent Marina, who spoke both Maya and Aztec and who, as Cortes' mistress, had quickly learned Spanish. Montezuma seated himself near Cortes and began to speak:

"Long time have we been informed by the writings of our ancestors," said Montezuma, "that neither myself nor any of those who inhabit this land are natives of it, but rather strangers who have come to it from foreign parts. We likewise know that from those parts our nation was led by a certain lord (to whom all were subject), and who then went back to his native land, where he remained so long delaying his return that at this coming those whom he had left had married the women of the land and had many children by them and had built themselves cities in which they lived, so that they would in no wise return to their own land nor acknowledge him as lord; upon which he left them.

And we have always believed that among his descendants one would surely come to subject this land and us as rightful vassals. Now seeing the regions from which you say you come, which is from where the sun rises, and the news you tell us of this great king and ruler who sent you hither, we believe and hold it certain that he is our natural lord: especially in that you say he has long had knowledge of us.

"Wherefore," Montezuma concluded, "be certain that we will obey you and hold you as lord in place of that great lord of whom you speak, in which service there shall be neither slackness nor deceit: and throughout all the land, that is to say all that I rule, you may command anything you desire, and it shall be obeyed and done, and all that we have is at your will and pleasure."

This is the note on which the account should end. But history has a sly way of being anticlimactic. Not all of the warlike Aztecs shared Montezuma's views-views that he literally stood up for, was stoned by his own people and died for. The trail of Cortes was long and bloody before the nobles of Tenochtitlan again bent a to the strangers who - despite their white faces and bristling beards - were not the emissaries of Quetzalcoatl.

It is one of fate's poorer ironies that Quetzalcoatl, to whom the Mexicans attributed their culture, was even for an hour confused with Cortes who destroyed it - "beheaded a culture as the passer-by sweeps off the head of a sunflower."

..."Long time have we been informed by the writings of our ancestors." said Montezuma, "that neither myself nor any of those who inhabit this land are natives of it, but rather strangers from those parts our nation was led by a certain lord (to whom all were subject), and who then went back to his native land, where he remained so long delaying his return that at his coming those whom he had left had married the women of the land and had many children by them and had built themselves cities in which they lived, so that they would in no wise return to their own land nor acknowledge him as lord; upon which he left them."...

...Today the most widely know "fact" of American history, as tests have shown, is this: in 1492 Columbus discovered America. Generations of American have been drilled to believe that for aeons the Western Hemisphere, isolated by two great oceans, lay totally unheard of - till scarlet-clad Christopher Columbus stepped ashore and planted the Spanish standard on the beach of an island he named San Salvador. This theory, in turn, has since been exploded, gently and respectfully, with so timid a poof as to be scarcely audible. For the achievements of Christopher Columbus are many, and our debt to him can never be lightly dismissed. From 1492 on, the line of development is essentially unbroken. The inscription on his tomb is the literal truth: "To Castile and León Columbus gave a new world"; and Castile and León then staked out he unclaimed hemisphere.

...One such deviation is suggested by a time-faded map bearing the date 1424, which was rediscovered in 1946. For a century this sea chart had lain buried among the thousands of manuscripts in the awesome miscellany collected by Sir Tomas Phillips, an eccentric English antiquarian who died in 1872. Falling at last into other hands, the map was dug out, dusted, and studied. Four red and blue blotches in the western Atlantic mark four islands, one of them clearly labeled Antilia. The importance of the chart was deemed to be such that Armando Cortesão concluded that the map is authentic and that the island group which includes Antilia definitely lies in the New World. In other words, here is a map of New World islands charted almost seven decades before Columbus set out for the Indies.

...From Ireland come the Imrama or Irish sea legends, fantastic tales of the seagoing monk St. Brendan and his long, mysterious voyages upon the Atlantic during the sixth century, including a voyage to an unknown land or island where he tarried, traditionally, from 565 till 573 A.D. Some students stoutly believe that St. Brendan was the first European to discover the New World. And perhaps he was, but proof of the feat is lacking. On the other hand, it is hard to forget that the vanguard of Spaniards who entered Mexico and Central America saw several things (including he rites of baptism and penance as practiced by the Maya) which suggested to them that other Christians had passed this way before.

...Going back, therefore, yet deeper into the past, we come to one of the strangest finds that American soil has yielded. A hoard of several hundred Roman coins, the latest from about 350 A.D., was dug up near the shore in Venezuela a few years ago. Here indeed is an early American mystery!

And yet not he earliest. For archaeologists hacking their way through Middle American jungles have latterly come upon great stone faces and faces tiny, hook-nosed, and bearded carefully carved from jade, faces on pottery, faces on building -faces which bear little resemblance to those of Indians but much to a certain Old World type. These faces were found where higher cultures had flourished not only before the Christian ear but back in the days when "the Eternal City" was little more that a village.

If one reconsiders the possibility that ancient seafarers found their way to these shores, then several stray pieces that have long perplexed the literate world fall suddenly into place. One such stray piece is the knowledge which ancient Greek writers displayed of a land that lay far out in the Atlantic. In the fourth century B.C., for example, the Greek Theopompus could write that beyond the known world there was "an island of immense extent inhabited by strange people quite different from ours." There are, to be sure, islands in the eastern Atlantic, and hence Old World islands, but none is immense extent. Other ancients too, recording legends out of a past dim and distant even to them, wrote of lands beyond the Pillars of Hercules -far beyond. This baffling tradition possessed a vitality that kept it alive through the ages.

...On one point all will agree, Columbus was not he first to set eyes on the New World; nor were the Norsemen; nor, if they came at all, were the Irish, the Romans, or the roving Phoenicians. Others had traveled this way before them. Who came first? That tireless traveler, Stone Age man, who managed to precede historic man to every continent except the seventh, grim Antarctica. We call the first Americans "Indians," but where did the Indians come from?

...When Mongoloids mix with another race, four Mongoloid physical characteristics are likely to be passed on to the children. These four "dominant" traits are shovel-shaped upper incisors (front teeth), brown eyes, straight coarse black hair, and prominent cheekbones. Most American Indians exhibit these Mongoloid traits. They also have other Mongoloid traits: yellow or yellowish-brown skin and sparse hair on the body and face, with less beard than any other race. Who can recall having seen a Chinese or an Indian wearing a bushy beard?

Even so, most American Indians lack certain important Mongoloid traits. Their eyes do not slant. The "Mongoloid fold," a fold of skin that covers all or part of the rim of the upper eyelid, reappears only occasionally. And the hawk-like nose of the Plains Indians scarcely mirrors the Mongoloid's flat one. In short, as H. Marie Wormington summarized neatly, "Most anthropologists believe that, although American aborigines must be placed i the generally Mongoloid division of mankind, they represent a composite race. "


...In all of America's past no figure is more exciting, more tantalizing, or more frustrating than that of the Fair God Quetzalcoatl. A stranger, a bearded white mean dressed in a flowing robe, he is said to have come from afar and from the east. According to the many legends that surround his name, he appeared in Mexico of a sudden and lingered long in several places, dispensing a vastness of information, for which he was called the bringer of knowledge, "the traditional master-builder of American civilization." He disappeared as mysteriously as he had come, with the promise that he would return.

No one can say with certainty who Quetzalcoatl might have been or whence he had come. Some archaeologists flatly declare that he never existed - except in the minds of the myriad Indians who worshiped him through the centuries. Others believe that there must have been several flesh-and-blood culture heroes who were given this name, one very early and another or others some centuries later, and that in time their various deeds came to be attributed to a single Quetzalcoatl. Confusing the matter further, the Toltec high priests assumed the name with the office. As for the military conqueror named Quetzalcoatl, a few archaeologists recite with assurance the dates of the major events of his life and hold that he worship of Quetzalcoatl stemmed from his triumphs.

...One of the first of the Spanish historians was Father Bernardino de Sahagún, a Franciscan missionary. Father Sahagún sought out the most learned and often the oldest natives, gathered them about him, and asked each to paint in his Aztec picture writing as much as he could clearly remember of Aztec history, religion, and legend. Next Sahagún called in other Aztecs who had attended the Spanish mission schools established in Mexico and had been taught the Roman alphabet. Sahagún set these natives to work transcribing into Roman characters, though still in the Aztec language, the Aztec picture writing produced by his learned recruits. Then, having himself learned the Aztec language, he compared the results in the hope of detecting errors and fabrication. These labors over the years produced many volumes of Mexican lore, among them the epic Song of Quetzalcoatl.

All the glory of the godhead

Had the prophet Quétzalcóatl;

All the honor of the people.

Sanctified his name and holy;

And their prayers they offered to him

In the days of ancient Tula.

There in grandeur rose his temple;

Reared aloft its mighty ramparts, Reaching upward to the heavens.

See, his beard is very lengthy;

See, exceeding long his beard is;

Yellow as the straw his beard is!

And his people, they the Toltecs,

Wondrous skilled in all the trades were,

All the arts and artifices,

So that naught there was they knew not;

And as master workmen worked they.

Fashioned they the sacred emeralds;

Fashioned they the precious turquoise;

Smelted they both gold and silver.

Other arts and trades they mastered;

In all crafts and artifices

Skilled were they as wondrous workmen.

And in Quétzalcóatl all these

Arts and crafts had their beginning;

In him all were manifested.

He the master workman taught them

All their trades and artifices.

Very rich was Quétzalcóatl.

Nothing pleasing to the palate,

Nothing helpful to the body

Ever lacked they there in Tula.

Very large there grew the squashes;

So that one could scarcely span them

With the outstretched arms embracing.

Very long and thick the corn ears,

So that in their arms they bore them.

Wondrous rich were all the Toltecs;

Masters they of wealth uncounted;

Every need was satisfied them;

Nothing lacked they in their households;

Hunger never dwelt among them;

And the small corn never used they

Save to heat their thermal baths with.

Quétzalcóatl offered penance

And with thorns his legs he punctured

Till the blood came oozing outward.

Even bathed he in the night-time;

Bathed he in the Xippacóyan,

In the bathing place of Xípe.

And this custom imitated

They the sacred fie expenders;

They the priests officiating

Kept the mode of Quétzalcóatl,

Master of their organization

And creator of their being;

Kept the usages of Tula,

Even as today we keep them;

Here in Mexico observe them.

...Other chroniclers meanwhile were likewise gathering data, and the shadowy image of Quetzalcoatl was beginning to take on more detail. Juan de Torquemada, a late sixteenth-century Spanish chronicler, summarized thus the information he was able to glean:

"Certain people came from the north by way of Pánuco. These were man of good carriage, well-dressed in long robes of black linen, open in front, and without capes, cut low at he neck, with short sleeves that did not come to the elbow; the same, in fact, as the natives use to this day in their dances. From Pánuco they passed on very peaceably by degrees to Tulla, where they were well received by the inhabitants. The country there, however, was already too thickly populated to sustain the newcomers, so these passed on to Cholula where they had an excellent reception. They brought with them as their chief and head, a personage called Quetzalcoatl, a fair and ruddy complexioned man, with a long beard. In Cholula these people remained and multiplied, and sent colonists to Upper and Lower Mizteca and Zapotecan country; and these it is said raised the grand edifices whose remains are still to be seen at Mictlan. These followers of Quetzalcoatl were men of great knowledge and cunning artist in all kinds of fine work; not so good an masonry and the use of the hammer, as in casting and in the engraving and setting of precious stones, and in all kinds of artistic sculpture, and in agriculture."

Torquemada commented else where that Quetzalcoatl was a white man: èra Hombre blanc; a large man, broad-browed, with huge eyes, long black hair, and a great, rounded beard: la barba grande y redonda.

In this description, particularly the black hair, most of the early writers concur. The line quoted previously from The Song of Quetzalcoatl - "Yellow as the straw his beard is" - is in flat contradiction to other descriptions of Quetzalcoatl that refer specifically to his black hair or black beard; from which several scholars have inferred that the nameless Aztec poet, employing poetic license, bleached the black beard of Quetzalcoatl to present him as a sun symbol. As for Torquemada's two descriptions of Quetzalcoatl, the apparent contradiction between the "fair and ruddy complexioned man" and the "long black hair" puts me in mind of our Mexican guide Alfredo, a full-blooded Spaniard with black hair, flashing dark eyes, and olive skin; yet I have heard Alfredo described as "fair" by other Mexicans.

...Torquemada's statement that Quetzalcoatl "came fro the north by way of Pánuco" might be misconstrued unless one consults a map. Although north-northeast of Mexico City, Pánuco lies near the eastern shore, a few miles inland from the Gulf of Mexico on the Pánuco River, close to modern Tampico. Most of the early writers held that Quetzalcoatl had come fro the east. One version records that he lived "in a distant East, beyond immense seas and lands." Others say that his stranger simply appeared, that one day the natives notice "the sudden presence among them of persons differing for themselves in appearance and descent."

...The early Spaniards soon learned that Quetzalcoatl was more that "the bringer of civilization." He was also the god of learning and culture, the wind god and god of the air. If they went to his temple hoping to find his statue, they were disappointed, for they found instead his symbol sculptured in stone: a feathered serpent.

...Tula was the reputed capital of the Toltecs, and legend had much to say about both. ...these Toltecs...knew how to write and to reckon, to rule with justice, and to build magnificent temples, Toltec soldiers wore copper helmets. Their empire had endured some five hundred years, he believed, before it succumbed at last to famine and strife. All of this dovetailed with other traditions which credited Quetzalcoatl with bringing the art of picture writing from the Land of the Sun, introducing major reforms in government, and teaching the Toltecs to become master builders, as their name implies. And always the legends named as the Toltec capital Tula or Tulla or Tollan.

...As for Quetzalcoatl, the Toltecs did not forget their teacher. One of the most impressive structures at Tula is the Temple of Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli, "Lord of the House of Dawn, Venus, the morning star, variant of Quetzalcoatl." Although the roof that covered the patio in front of his temple no longer exists, some of its amazing pillars still stand. These pillars are atlantes or telamones (the male form of caryatids) - sculptured columns of gigantic stone warriors. The heads of the warriors alone achieve the height of a man. The fragment that Charnay had discovered almost sixty years before was recognized now as a part of one of these atlantes. Around the walls, belled jaguars parade in endless succession.

Tula and the Toltecs, at least, have thus stepped out of mythology into history, their legendary reputations confirmed by recent excavations. And off in the limbo of discredited historians, Sahagún and Ixtlilxóchitl must have enjoyed to chuckle together.

True, beneath those unpromising mounds at Tula lay proof that Toltec artisans had labored there hundreds of years, just as legends stated, and that the Toltecs had long preceded the Aztecs. The Aztecs, however, represent what Brogger might have termed "the end phase."...

...In scaling thus swiftly up the ladder toward civilization, the Aztecs were only repeating the rapid ascent of the Chichimecs, their immediate predecessors and teachers. When the Chichimecs entered the Valley of Mexico a century earlier, they were barbarians who dressed in animal skins and dwelt in caves. After coming in contact with the last vestiges of Toltec culture, the Chichimecs were soon weaving and making pottery. Led by a few surviving Toltecs, Chichimecs even started erecting pyramids and were presently painting codices.

...The fountainhead of this flood of civilization may possibly have been the Toltecs; in fact, the name Toltec, meaning "master builder," could have been a generic term applied to both earlier and later pyramid-building peoples, or the proud name itself might have been usurped. More likely, however, the Toltecs in turn, like the Aztecs and Chichimecs, borrowed from a yet older people. Tracing the stream of Middle American civilization backward through time and terrain to its headwaters is a task which is still going on, for the stream meanders deviously into and out of far places...


...The Temple of Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli (or Quetzalcoatl) at Tula has five. (terraces) Ziggurats too were terraced pyramids of Egypt also were terraced or stepped. The Step Pyramid of Sakkara, built for Zoser (Djoser) in about 2750 B.C., has the outward appearance of a Mexican pyramid. The Step Pyramid of Medum, built for Snefru some fifty years later, although it now retains only three of its seven steps, looks more like a ziggurat that like the Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops), which followed shortly...

...As for dates, those indispensable guideposts as we grope our way back through the misty past, Teotihuacán has demonstrated the difficulty of obtaining reliable radiocarbon dates - as if the shades of departed worshipers were jealously guarding their secrets fro the prying present. But this much is known: its earliest structures reach back in to pre-Christian times, back to about 150 B.C. The entire site was later extensively altered, redecorated, even completely rebuilt, possibly because of a change in religion and possibly too out of sheer religious fervor. The Early American elite were ardent re-builders - much like the Babylonians and quite unlike the Egyptians, who never again touched a completed pyramid, no matter how great the need.

...Now, the Tower of Babel was a ziggurat. Babel was, in fact, the ziggurat, famous throughout the ancient world, "the epitome of human arrogance" and the envy of all. Rising in seven terraces, it towered about the Euphrates and glittered grandly across the Mesopotamian plain. There were many impressive structures at Babel (the city know to us through the Greeks as Babylon). but he Tower of Babel dimmed them; it was stupendous...

...One who looks sees the handprint of Sumer down through the ages, visible yet today. And Sumer too had its ziggurats, including a splendid one at Ur in Chaldea.

Like Ur, the Tower of Babel goes all the way back to the period described in Genesis. Small wonder that many a student, gazing on Middle American pyramids, may have wondered privately at eh resemblance to Old World ziggurats but has gone his way without comment. What could one say? Is the resemblance purely coincidental? Or is this perhaps the form of construction which lent itself best to tools of the time? Or could these American pyramids conceivably have been erected in imitation of ziggurats?


...Down in a valley lies Oaxaca, capital of the state of the same name. Oaxaca is a charming old city unchanged since colonial times; and yet it is a comparatively recent settlement, having been founded only six years before Columbus reached the West Indies. Above the city and seven miles distant looms a small mountain, Monte Albán.

..."Is there," asked the German journalist Egon Erwin Kisch in a sweeping query, "any other spot on earth so completely enwrapped in darkness, so mute in the face of all our questions?" And Kisch's questions were many. "What tribe, what race once dwelt at he foot of Monte Albán? Who were the builders, who the architects of these pagan temples?... What were the tools of the stonemasons made of?...How to explain why several of the urn-figures seem to depict an Egyptian sphinx, another the bird-headed god Ra, and why the relief's in the 'Gallery of Dancers' are partly in Assyrian style, partly a portrayal of Negroid types? How? Why? Whence?"

...Before the puzzling Mixtecs moved in, a little-known people called Zapotecs dwelt at Monte Albán. Much of the magnificent ceremonial center is credited to their labors. There was ample time for building: Zapotecs are believed to have worshipped here more than a thousand years. During their early period the Zapotecs built an astronomical observatory and possessed a hieroglyphic writing. This period has been placed between 200 B.C. + 145 years - only fifty years after the death of Alexander the Great and a few years before the first of the Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome.

Early settlers though they were, the Zapotecs were not the founders of Monte Albán. How large their cultural debt to their predecessors may have been it is difficult at this late date to say. The cat god of the previous residents lingered on at Monte Albán, where the Zapotecs adopted it, and they seem to have adopted more.

So little is known of the earliest comers to Monte Albán that their very identity was until recently in dispute. Ceramics from this initial period are similar to Olmec ceramics, but once they were thought to have been carried to Monte Albán by traders. Now these ceramics are believed to have been produced on the site. Moreover, the general cultural pattern of early Monte Albán bears a marked resemblance to that of the Omecs, most enigmatic and most exciting of all pre-conquest Americans.

Ixtlilxóchitl in his history of the world described the Olmecs as the people who succeeded the race of giants and, more significantly, as the people who flourished during the era when Quetzalcoatl appeared, bringing the gift of civilization. If, then, the founders of Monte Albán were Olmecs and if Quetzalcoatl arrived when the Omecs were flourishing, we may have in Monte Albán the first tangible clue to the dates of the original Quetzalcoatl, assuming him to have been a man or living men and not a fleshless fabrication.

...These rocks tell a fabulous story, for carved in enduring stone are "dancers" who must once have dwelt and probably danced on this man-made plateau. The "dancers" have flat noses, round faces, and thick lips. In short, their appearance suggests that the dancers of Monte Albán were Negroes.

Do these Negroid representations in association with a higher and very early culture indicate that the bringers of civilization were Negroes? Not necessarily. For here alongside the dancers another physical type is portrayed. One of the faces carved in the stone at Monte Albán is an Old Testament type with a convex nose and a spatulate beard, another feature alien to beardless American Indians.

There are yet the unanswered questions of Egon Erwin Kisch. How to account for such a conglomeration: an Egyptian sphinx, the Egyptian god Ra, an Assyrian style, and Negroid types - and in addition, as we have just seen, a bearded face of Semitic aspect? Where else on the face of the earth were these once blended?


...The shape of the great stone coffin at Palenque also warrants attention. The Maya stonemason, chiseling arduously with whatever tools he may have had, invested considerable time and effort to fashion a foot, a flared and flattened base. Why did he bother? Interestingly, the same question has been asked concerning similar stone sarcophagi found in Phoenician tombs, sarcophagi with rounded heads and flattened bases-and occasionally with the stone sides indented slightly at ankle height, as here, then flared at the foot. Archaeologists and art historians quickly supplied the answer as to Phoenician sarcophagi. Obviously, they said, these sarcophagi were modeled afer Egyptian mummy-cases. The Egyptians constructed their mummy-cases of wood, and the light, movable cases were sometimes stood upright: the wider base then increased the stability. The heavy stone sarcophagi of Phoenicia, however, were always found lying flat, as was the sarcophagus of Palenque. The ancient Phoenician, archaeologists agree, merely continued to copy a detail of their model long after its raison d'être had ceased to exist. Did the Maya stonemason likewise have a model in mind when he provided the heavy stone envelope of Palenque with a wide base?

...Yet here is a god of learning depicted in jade, a face which may or may not resemble that of a deified human. A bearded face, moreover, unlike the Maya who dwelt here but strongly suggestive of faces on finds even today in the Holy Land and the Levant, a face that would not have seemed out of place at he helm of an ancient Phoenician ship.


...Why snakes? In fact, why was a writhing serpent also the symbol of other Mexican culture-gods? The names of the Fair Gods Quetzalcoatl in the Aztec language, Kukulcan in the Mayan, and Gucumatz in the Quiché all have an identical meaning: "the feathered serpent, the snake covered with feathers, the green-feathered snake."

To be sure, in ancient Egypt the uraeus or sacred asp, appearing above the forehead, was the symbol of sovereignty. In Phoenicia it crawled on the scepter of the king of Gebal - and perhaps on the scepters of others whose remains have not yet been recovered. But another and broader explanation might be this: The lowly snake, as Bancroft once noted, is always and everywhere the symbol of healing. Two intertwined snakes as the emblem of healing, wisdom and fertility were early employed in Babylonia, and from there the symbol spread east and west. A Phoenician stela now in the Louvre bears two caducei; and, according to Berger in his Les Ex-voto du Temple de Tanit, the caduceus was no uncommon object on Carthaginian stelae. The Greek god of medicine, Asclepius, was represented by a single snake, and this single snake continued in use as the symbol of medicine in the western world until the sixteenth century, when it was replaced by the caduceus, two snakes twined round a winged staff, which is still today the symbol of the physician.

...The Phoenicians said of themselves that they came from the land of Canaan; and the original name of their land, so several Greek writers reported, was Xνâ. This would be transliterated into English as Chna; the Greek alphabet had no character which transliterates into our letter "v." The name has also been written in English as Kena'an or Kan'an, the vowel variance stemming form the fact that the Phoenician alphabet, like the Egyptian, lacked symbols for vowels, None of these is, of course, Chivim, but transliteration has accomplished many strange things. Among ancient place names one other is also vaguely similar to Chivim: the Chittim of the Old Testament, which is Cyprus, early settle by Phoenicians and described by Homer in the Iliad as a land thoroughly Phoenician.


by Aleister Crowley


"In particular there is a sort of novel, "The Lost Continent", purporting to give an account of the civilization of Atlantis. I sometimes feel that this lacks artistic unity. At times it is a fantastic rhapsody describing my ideals of Utopian society; but some passages are a satire on the conditions of our existing civilization, while others convey hints of certain profound magical secrets, or anticipations of discoveries in science."

--- Crowley, writing of the Summer of 1913 e.v. from Confessions, p. 730.


Last year I was chosen to succeed the venerable K-Z --- who had it in his mind to die, that is, to join Them in Venus, as one of the Seven Heirs of Atlantis, and I have been appointed to declare, so far as may found possible, the truth about that mysterious lost land. Of course, no more than one seventh of the wisdom is ever confided to one of the Seven, and the Seven meet in council but once in every thirty-three years. But its preservation is guaranteed by the interlocked systems of "dreaming true" and of "preparation of the antinomy." The former almost explains itself; the latter is almost inconceivable to normal man. Its essence is to train a man to be anything by training him to be its opposite. At the end of anything, think they, it turns out to be its opposite, and that opposite is thus mastered without having been soiled by the labours of the student, and without the false impressions of early learning being left upon the mind.

I myself, for example, had unknowingly been trained to record these observations by the life of a butterfly. All my impressions came clear on the soft wax of my brain; I had never worried because the scratch on the wax in no way resembled the sound it represented. In other words, I observed perfectly because I never knew that I was observing. So, if you pay sufficient attention to your heart, you will make it palpitate.

I accordingly proceed to a description of the country.


Atlas is the true name of this archipelago --- continent is an altogether false term, for every "house" or mountain peak was cut from its fellows by natural, though often very narrow waterways. The African Atlas is a mere offshoot of the range. It was the true Atlas that supported the ancient world by its moral and magical strength, and hence the name of the fabled globe-bearer. The root is the Lemurian "Tla" or "Tlas", black, for reasons which will appear in due course. "A" is the feminine prefix, derived from the shape of the mouth when uttering the sound. "Black woman" is therefore as near a translation as one can give in English; the Latin has aendered of the Virgin ("L") and the Serpent ("S"). "THEOS" (root "O," first written "0") means the Sun in his strength and also the Lingam-Yoni conjoined. "CHRISTOS" is "The love of passion of the Rising Sun ("R") and the Serpent" ("S"). The "I" and "T" indicate certain details which are foreign to the present discussion. "NEUMA" (Atlantean "NM") is the "Arch of the Woman," "MARIA," the Woman of the Sun.[23] The words "MEITHRAS" and "ABRAXAS" are again derived from Atlas. "The woman entered, Lingam being conjoined with Yoni, bears the Sun from her serpent womb" and "From the womb's mouth the Sun (cometh seeking) a womb for his desire, even the womb of a serpent," the course of the year being signified in this manner, as usualy with the ancients. This plain of an idea corresponding to each letter was carried out very strictly: thus "TLA," black, means the stigma or mark of the virgin's womb, "IA" (Hail! Greeting!) "Face to Face," from the other peculiarity described above. These few examples will suffice to indicate the singular character of the language,[24] and the way in which its essential dogmatic symbols have been incorporated by the heirs of Atlas in the inmost sanctuaries of races which they deemed worthy of such assistance.

I must not pass over in silence the question of sacrifice to the gods, to which a passing reference has already been made. Such sacrifices were not very frequent; the victims were the "failures," those who were useless to the social economy.[25] As they represented capital expenditure, the object was to recover this, at least, since no interest could be expected. The victim was therefore handed over to a High Priest or Priestess, who extracted the life by an instrument devised for and excellently adapted to the purpose, so that it died of exhaustion. The life thus regained was given to "the gods" in a manner too complex to be described in this brief account.

The early age at which puberty occurred was due to design. The normal period of gestation had also been shortened to four months. This was all part of the scheme to economize time. Old age had been almost done away with by the great readiness of the Atlanteans to "go and see" at the first sign of failing power. No doubt, further improvements would have been made but for the loss of interest in the matter, all generation being regarded as "the old experiment," not likely to repay the trouble of further research. In the 200 or 300 years of a man's full vigour, only 8 years on the average was the wastage of childhood, and even this was not all waste, since some time at least must be necessary for the experts to discover and direct the tendencies of the mind. The body ought therefore to be regarded as an engine, the theoretical limit of whose efficiency had been reached.

So much I mention of the customs of the Atlanteans with regard to marriage, education and religious sacrifices.

[#23] MAR is Atlantean (also Sanscrit) for die. This word throws light on their conception of death.

[#24] Note that no tautologies defile its linguistic wells. "As I have written" is never changed to "as I have observed, noted, described, said, indicated, remarked, pointed out" and so on.

[#25] I must revert for a moment to the language. OIK, Greek "OIKOS" meant the "House of the penetrating men." NOM, Greek "NOMOS", the "arch of the House of the Women," "i.e." that which roofed them in or protected them. Hence "the law."

Of The History Of Atlas, From Its Earliest Origins To The Period Immediately Preceding The Catastrophe.

The origin of Atlas is lost in the obscurity of antiquity. The official religious explanation is this: "We came across the waters on the living Atla," which is pious but improbable. A mystic meaning is to be suspected. The lay historian says "We came, escaping from destruction, eight persons in a ship, bearing the living Zro." This reminds me one of later legends of presumably equal value. Poets frankly claim "We descended from heaven," and it has been seriously urged that seafarers would have preferred the plains to the rocks. The law of contrariety to Nature explains this away. Others maintain that the earliest settlers came "by air," or "through air." This must mean balloons or airplanes, as flying was not known until centuries after. What is definitely known is that the earliest settlers were of a purely fighting race.

An Atlantean Homer, Ylo, has described the first battle in such detail as to leave no doubt that he is retelling facts --- a marked contradiction to his earlier books. There appear to have been but few Atlanteans, unless the names given are those of chiefs, which internal evidence contraverts. The natives were armed with every possible instrument of precision, having cavalry and artillery in abundance, as well as weapons that must have been as superior to the modern rifle (unless Ylo exaggerates) as that is to the arquebus. In spite of this the men of Atlas "smote them with rods" or "fell upon them with their cones," and routed them utterly. This mention of rods and cones has absurdly suggested to commentators that the Atlanteans used their eyes, and hypnotized the enemy. To state such an opinion is sufficient to expose its author to the contempt of the thoughtful. Altogether 86 battles were fought, extending over five years, before the natives were reduced to sue for peace. This was granted on generous terms, which the colonists broke, as soon as they dared to do so, in accordance with the invariable rule of colonists, then as much as today. However, it was nigh on an hundred years before the first college of Magic was established. Previously the Atla had been carried about as occasion demanded. It was now enshrined with some decency of ceremonial upon a mountain. About three hundred years later we find ourselves face to face with the first great Mystery of Atlas. This is a translation of the record of that most strange event.

"Now it came to pass that all men turned black and died, and that the living Atla abode alone, bearing Mercury, whereof the Sun knoweth. Thus came again the true men of Atlas, and their women, bearing gods and goddesses. And the void suffered nothing, and the earth was at peace. Now then indeed arose Art, and men builded, being blind. And there was light, and some of the light wrought mischief. Wherefore the wise men destroyed them with their Magic, and there is no record because it is written in that which is." A sort of "Si" "monumentum quaeris, circumspice" seems here implied. In any case there were clearly two gaps unbridgeable between the early struggles of the settlers, the period of great buildings, and the modern period, which proved stable of "houses." The "houses" were only made possible by the perfecting of Zro, and this helps considerably to fix the date. The next 2500 years were years of peaceable progress; the labour-mills were run without a hitch, and the next event was the discovery of black phophorus. It had been the custom to worship the Atla with lights, and these lights had been candles of yellow phosphorus in golden sheathes. At that time the Atla was veiled. At one festival of Spring the veils were burnt up, the lights extinguished, and the yellow phosphorus was found to have been turned into the black powder. The Magicians examined this, and brought Zro to its ninth stage. This revolutionized the condition of things: old age and disease were no more, and death voluntary. Strangely enough this led directly to the Great Conspiracy.

At the end of this period of 2500 years the system of "houses" was well established. There were over 400 such "houses," each of perhaps 1000 souls on an average. These were governed by 4 "houses of houses" whose rulers took orders from the High House, at the head of which was the living Atla. The plain principle of Atla was revolution; and like all revolutionary bodies, was obliged to adopt the strictest form of autocracy. A democracy is always soddenly conservative. The only hope is to catch it in one of its moments of crazy enthusiasm, and crush it before it has time to recover. Caesar and Napoleon both did this as far as they could: Cromwell and Porfirio Diaz did the same within narrower limits.

Now a certain sophist --- for philosopher one cannot call him --- tried to enunciate a magical law to the effect that the present standard of life was all that could be desired; that further progress would be harmful, that Venus was not worth attaining, and that the sole endeavour of the Magicians should be to preserve things as they were. That such a proposition could be supposed a "law" reflects no credit on its author or its supporters. Yet of these it found many. The ninth stage of Zro was a leap calculated to unsettle the calmest mind. Its reality had begared the optimist's daydream. Poets had thrown down their stilettos.[26] High Priests who had spent decades in hopeful experiment saw their results attained by an entirely different method. In short, two thirds of the people were infected with the heresy, and hoped to hear it promulgated as a Law of Magic.

It should here be explained that every Law of Magic had its turn as the principal law of practical working, and the school supporting any law, or insisting on it, became prominent with it. Every dominant law in all history had always been made insignificant by a new discovery about Zro, or other matter of practical importance, just as the "Peace with Honour" battle-cry of Disraeli was drowned by the calculation of the cost of warships, soldiers and patriotism. Each step in Zro had consequently implied the rise to power of a new school; and the sophist was ambitious, and yet the law he wished to establish was the ruling law of the servile races.

The "law" was accordingly sent to the High House for approval. Some opposition may have been forseen, but no one was prepared for the blackness of disapproval which actually radiated, striking hearts cold. A course without precedent, no answer was vouchsafed. On the contrary, even normal communication was suspended. The houses which favoured the innovation --- 333 in numbers --- took counsel, came to the decision that it was useless to oppose the High House, and were about to acquiesce, when a woman who had once been in the presence of "To Her" rose and thought vehemently "The Living Atla is the head of our conspiracy." In other words, they were the loyalists, the Magicians of the High House the rebels. This was why they had cut themselves off, because their own head was against them. It was instantly resolved to go to the High House, and demand the custody of "To Her." Nearing the goal, however, a remnant of the ancient reverence half cowed even the ringleaders --- I may mention that five of every six of the heretics were women --- when they saw a stern phalanx of Magicians, its point threatening their centre. As they wavered, a woman cried "They are only men such as we are." The ranks stiffened; on all sides the army closed upon the tiny phalanx, which only numbered 66 all told. It was then that the truth was known. Ere a blow could be struck, the attacking party vanished;

[#26] Needle-sharp daggers of Zro in its seventh stage were used to

it was instantaneous and complete annihilation. From that moment it was certain that the ruling power in Atlas was Something[27] infinitely more awful than the Living Atla. In order to avoid any possible repetition of such a disaster --- for the Magicians of the High House knew that any manifestation of the Supreme must undo the work of centuries --- they gave out that they had become too terrible to look upon, and for the future they always appeared with heavy veils, or rather masks, since for the most part they were carven fantastically by the wearers in their leisure hours. A further alteration was made in the system of government. The head of one of the "houses of houses" was made supreme: the High House took no part in affairs of state. Thus the Atla was to all intents and purposes deposed, although the same reverence and sacrifice were paid to it as formerly. It became a "constitutional monarch," in our modern jargon.

The next thousand years were years of serious trial in other ways. The toil of repopulation was excessive, and there was a revolt or rather strike of the servile races, which was ended by the substitution of "bread from heaven" for those products of the earth on which they had formerly been fed, a diet which proved so adapted to their natures that no labour troubles ever recurred.

The Greek legends of the wars between Gods, giants, Titans are traditional of a real war or series of wars which continued with intervals over 200 years. The enemy had developed naval armament to an extreme. Their tactics were these:

1. To wipe out the servile races and so to interfere with the production of Zro.

2. To rush and destroy the High House.

The first of these met with a great deal of success, the floating rock being struck with projectiles and sunk. This occurred chiefly on the outlaying islands, where they were not too much afraid to make raids in force. They also sent epidemic disease of many kinds. Atlas was reduced to such extremity in these ways that at one time the waterways were forced and the assault on the High House was actually carried out, bombardment continuing day and night for months together. Through a misunderstanding of well known magical law, Atlanteans at that time considered themselves prohibited from employing any other defence than the rods and the cones of their forefathers; and these, it appears, were useless against machinery, or against men protected by fortification in such a way that they could not be got at from any quarter. Thus the sharklike submarines of the enemy were unassailable. The war was therefore at first entirely one-sided. A certain youthful Magician, however, resolving to die for his country if need were, decided to retaliate. He had found that Zro in its nascent state ("i.e." between the globes) had the power of bringing about endothermic reaction, seawater for example, becoming caustic soda and hydrochloric acid; and further that this acid thus produced was many thousand times more active than in its normal state. For example, the rock basins in which he conducted his first experiment dissolved as rapidly as butter under boiling oil. He then prepared a number of pairs of receiver-globes, and dropped them in the vicinity of the enemy's submarines by night. In this manner he destroyed the hulls of almost the whole fleet in a single night; and the remainder fled in panic at dawn. They returned the following year, carrying out daylight raids only and devoting themselves chiefly to destroying the labour-mills. The young magician had been rewarded for his services by being presented to the Atla, and this example encouraged others to find means of attacking the invaders. Artificial darkness was therefore invented, and combined with the former method; but this was only partially successful, the tremendous pace of the "sharks" enabling them to evade any threatening clouds. They did enormous

[#27] This matter is not for open discussion. Even at this distant date it would be dangerous to do so much even as indulge in speculation.

damage, and the supplies of Zro were seriously curtailed. Things now went from bad to worse, and culminated in the attack on the High House, the besiergers keeping their battleships surrounded by rafts of fire, so that attack was impossible even by night. It was then that the High House called on the heorism of its sons. Armed with long swords of Zro, they plunged into the sea, to perish under the tooth of the "Zhee-Zhou," but not before they had time to hack the invading battleships to shreds. Their floating torch-rafts only assisted the attack by directing the swimmers to their quarry. The attack on the High House had aroused Atlas at last. A counter invasion was plotted and carried out with immediate and complete success, the enemy being exterminated, and their country not merely ravaged but destroyed by arousing the forces of earthquake. All activity of this kind however was deprecable, a recurrence was guarded against by removing the High House to the lofty mountain previously described, and a "house" was chosen to cultivate the art of war, and entrusted with the duty of destroying any living thing that might approach within a hundred miles of Atlas.

Only one other adventure of historical importance remains to be recorded. It is the attempt of some foolish Atlanteans to found an "Empire," and so to be entirely distinguished from the missionary effort referred to previously. The original settlement of Atlas, as has been the case with all flourishing colonies, was made by a few hardy pioneers, who strengthened themselves gradually by growth. But Atlas in her momentary madness poured out blood and treasure in the fatuous attempt to impose alien domination on lands utterly unsuited to the genius of the people. The idea, of course, was to increase the supply of labour and consequently of crude Zro. In the first place the adventure was expensive. It was uneconomical (in the scientific sense) to send ships with less than 1000 fighting men. The Zro required for these meant the employment of at least 7000 serviles, and the naval construction was therefore of a colossal order. But although little difficulty was found in conquering the country in the military sense, the natives had to be almost exterminated, and the labour of the survivors proved difficult to enforce. It was even then not a tenth as efficient as that of the serviles at home. The imported serviles moreover caught native diseases, and died in hundreds; and though by prodigious sacrifices the West African Empire was kept going for nearly 200 years, it had to end at last no less ingloriously than the French adventure in Mexico, or the English in India, and South Africa.[28]

The main causes were the impossibility of breeding children in a climate so unsuitable, even of maintaining their own women, and above all the fact that the crude Zro was not of a quality equal to that obtained in Atlas, and that the Zro generated by the Atlanteans themselves was not to be made at all outside their own country. The lesson was learnt. Until the end no further attempt was made to advance in any but the true direction. The great majority of the colonists returned to Atlas; but many, degenerating as is the fashion with colonists of this conquering kind, abandoned Zro for gross food, intermarried with the natives, and have generally degenerated yet further to races inferior even to the present descendants of those who were in those days the equivalents of the serviles of Atlas.

[#28] I write a little, but not much, in advance of the events. To illustrate the theory here advanced I will ask the reader to compare the results of the attempts to colonize America by (a) the whole military power of Spain at her zenith, (b) the handful of exiles in the "Mayflower."


In my remarks on Zro I have a necessarily somewhat diffuse account of the properties of this remarkable substance. It must now be made clearer that the crude Zro in its nine stages produced by the serviles, and consumed in the "houses" was in each stage of inferior quality to that of the same degree produced by the Atlanteans, and consumed by the High House. For example, the crude Zro was made in a labour-mill with all sorts of insulations. The first stage of the priest's Zro could be made anywhere and at any time, and naturally directed itself to the receptable for it without any precautions. It must, I think, be presumed that the Zro generated in the High House was again of far greater purity and potency. Very little of it can have been used in the experiments of the Magicians, and it is therefore necessary to account for enormous quantities, produced during many centuries of uninterrupted labour. I have, however, no data of any kind for this investigation; the mysteries of the High House have ever been inscrutable, and were not wholly delivered to the Heirs of Atlas. They must be rediscovered by the Magicians of the new race. It may be that in some form or other the Zro had been made stable, and used to impregnate the column which is alleged to have been driven "through the Earth"; perhaps, and less improbably, only to the depth of a few hundred miles. This column, however long it may have been, had certainly its top immediately beneath the reservoir of the High House. It had been completed about 70 years before the "catastrophe" but apparently no effort was made to utilize it in any way. To me it appears probable that in some one mind the whole "catastrophe" was brooding, that the column was part of the device, and that the event which I shall now describe was the other part.

This event was the birth of a child in the High House, a child without the distinguishing mark of the daughters of Atlas. That any child at all should have been born there is so incredible that I am inclined to suspect an improper use of the word "born." I think rather that a Magician brought Zro to its eleventh stage, when it takes human form, and lives! The alternative theory is that of the "Angel of Venus" described in the chapter on the Underground Gardens of Atlas. The supporters of this theory hold that the child was not born of a Priestess, but of the Living Atla.

In any case, the whole country gave itself up to unbridled rejoicing. Work was carried on at a greater speed than ever before: one might say a delirium of labour. For eleven years this continued without cessation, and then without warning came the order to repair to the High House --- every man, woman and child of Atlas. What was then done, I know not, and dare not guess; that same day seven volunteers, heroic exiles from the reward of so many centuries of toil, voluntary maroons on the discarded planet, the Heirs of Atlas, turned their faces from the High House, and severally sought distant mountains, there each to guard his share of the Secrets of the Holy Race, and in due time to discover and train up fit children of other races of the Earth so that one day another people might be founded to undertake another such task as that now ended.

Hardly had the pinnacle of Atlas melted into the sea behind them, than the "catastrophe" occurred. The High House and the column beneath it, with all the inhabitants of Atlas, shot from the Earth with the vehemence of a million lightnings, bound for that green blaze of glory that scintillated in the West above the sunset.

Instantly the Earth, its god departed, gave itself up to anguish. The sea rushed unto the void of the column and in a thousand earthquakes Atlas, "houses" and plains together were overwhelmed forever in the ocean. Tidal waves rolled round the world; everywhere great floods carried away villages and towns; earthquakes roocked and tempest roared; tumult was triumphant. For years after the catastrophe the dying tremors of the Event still shook mankind with fear.[29] And the eternal waves of the great mother rolled over Atlas, save where Earth in her agony thrust up gaunt pinnacles, bare masts of wreckage to mark the vanished continent. Save for its heirs, of whose successors it is my highest honour to be the youngest and the least worthy, oblivion fell, like one last night in which the Sun should be forever extinct, upon the land of Atlas and its people.

Shall such high purpose fail of emulation, such achievement and example not excite us to like striving? Then let Earth fall indeed from her high place in heaven, and mankind be outcast forever from the Sun! Men of Earth! Seek out the heirs of Atlas; let them order you into a phalanx, let them build you into a pyramid; that may pierce that appointed which awaits you, to establish a new dynasty of Atlanteans to be the mainstay and mainspring of the Earth, the pioneers of their own path to heaven, and to our lord and Father, the Sun! And he put his hand upon his thigh, and swore it.

By the ineffable "Tla," and the holy Zro, did he swear it, and entered into the body of the new Atla that is alive upon the Earth.

[#29] The Legend of the Deluge is derived from this event.

Controversial dig sparks pyramid mania in Bosnia

VISOKO, Bosnia (Reuters) - Pyramid or publicity stunt? Archeologists can't agree but for the people of Visoko, the debate is almost irrelevant: They believe there's a pyramid under the hill near their town and they are already cashing in.

Visoko is booming, boosted by a controversial dig that aims to prove that the nearby Visocica hill is a pyramid built 12,000 years ago by the ancestors of the Illyrians, said to be the first inhabitants of the Balkans. Many archeologists are skeptical but Semir Osmanagic, the Bosnian-born businessman who came up with the pyramid theory and who is the force behind the dig, is convinced he can prove it.

"As much as the idea of pyramids in Europe and particularly in Bosnia may seem incredible, we're convinced we'll succeed," U.S.-based Osmanagic told reporters.

Since the dig began in April, visitors have flocked to the top of Visoko's hill, some 18 miles north of Sarajevo, making the ascent by car, motorbike and even horse-drawn coach. On a sunny April day, lines of people clambered up the 2,300-foot-high hill while models from Sarajevo Fashion Week walked around the dig, waving paper Bosnian flags.

"We read about the pyramid on the Internet. It would be great that something so grand happens to Bosnia," said tourist Senada Wiitigen, who came to Bosnia from Germany on holiday.

Nearby, the manager of a food factory was flogging "Bosnian Sun Pyramid" pralines. Hawkers sold hastily printed T-shirts and brandy in pyramid-shaped bottles while craftsmen turned out pyramid souvenirs. Retiree Rasim Kilalic turned his weekend home near the dig into a cafe. "Please God, let them find a pyramid," he said, rushing to serve crowded tables. But many established archeologists believe the theory behind Visoko's mini-boom is nonsense.

"Even the slightest acquaintance with archeology would tell anyone that the only things being built in Europe at that time were flimsy huts, and a lot of people were still living in caves or rock shelters," said Professor Anthony Harding, president of the European Association of Archeologists.

"Even if we assume these people have the date wrong by several millennia, and they are actually nearer in date to the Egyptian pyramids, the idea that people in Bosnia at that time were building pyramids of any sort, let alone enormous ones that dwarf even the Great Pyramid at Giza, is pure fantasy."

Sun and Moon

Osmanagic calls the two hills forming a gate into the Visoko valley the Sun and Moon Pyramids, named after pyramids he saw in Central America. He named a smaller hill the Dragon Pyramid.

"Visocica hill has almost three perfect triangle sides, each pointing toward cardinal points," said Osmanagic, who often wears an Indiana Jones-style trilby hat.

"This and its pyramid shape were enough for me. Nature simply could not build such perfect objects."

Last year, during a dig at the base of Visocica hill - Osmanagic's Sun Pyramid -geologists on his team said they found polished sandstone slabs, which may have formed the pyramid's floor. They found another building material, also not native to the area, which they think was used for the stairs.

In the second week of digging, they found stone blocks that Osmanagic said were pyramid walls. Over the next few months, he aims to unearth what he believes are stone stairs and explore 2.4 miles of tunnels that he says connect the hills.

Pyramid-shaped structures were built by many ancient peoples and used as temples, tombs or royal monuments. Some of the best preserved are Egypt's pyramids, built around 4,500 years ago. Step pyramids exist in Mexico and modern-day Iran and Iraq.

Greece and Egypt have said they will send experts to the Bosnian site in the coming months, but closer to home there are fears the ad-hoc dig could destroy the remains of a medieval Bosnian town at the top of Visocica hill.

"This is the equivalent of letting me, an archeologist, perform surgery," said Enver Imamovic, professor of history and former director of the Sarajevo-based Regional Museum.

Valley Of Pyramids

Osmanagic plans to open the "Bosnian Valley of Pyramids" as an archeological park in 2008. His project is supported by Visoko council and has raised hopes that the area could become a major tourist attraction in a country slowly winning back visitors after a devastating war in the 1990s.

"We should absolutely allow the research here," said Senad Hodovic, the director of the Visoko Historic Heritage museum.

"This isn't about whether there are pyramids or not ... But it's important to create a climate for research, also of the medieval town of Visoki, which has never been explored."

Nearby mine and rescue associations have offered their services for the exploration of the tunnels. Universities in Sarajevo and Tuzla have pledged their expertise and firms in Visoko are donating products and services.

The volunteer diggers are mainly unemployed men from Visoko.

Osmanagic believes the site was chosen in the belief that it was a focal point of energies, like Giza in Egypt. That, he says, could explain the local claim that no one was killed in the three-pyramid area during the 1992-95 war.

"The pyramid saved them," he said.

For now, Osmanagic is financing the dig himself. To continue his research this year, he will need some 200,000 Bosnian marka ($125,550), which he hopes to get from Bosnian authorities.

"The history of civilization has to be rewritten," he said. "Bosnia will become a giant on the world archeological map."

Comet Phaethon's Ride

In 1927 Franz Xaver Kugler, a Jesuit scholar who had devoted over thirty years to the study of cuneiform astronomical texts, published an essay entitled "The Sibylline Starwar and Phaethon In the Light of Natural History." His tri-decade-plus familiarity with ancient documents of celestial events plus a growing consensus that the crater at Coon Mountain Arizona (Meteor Crater) was in fact produced by a large meteoroid provided the scientific footing for Kugler's assertion that a similarly large impact event in the Mediterranean Sea inspired fire-from-above legends such as Phaethon's ride.

Coincidentally, it was also in 1927 that Leonid Kulik, a Russian Scientist, located the area devastated by the twenty-megaton aerial explosion in 1908 of what was probably a piece of debris long ago separated from the progenitor of the still extant comet, Encke. Kulik's first expedition to the Tunguska region in 1921 had been intriguing but unsuccessful, so the cash poor Soviet Academy was reluctant to fund another hunt. What finally tipped the scales in Kulik's favor was a report prepared by a former head of the Irkutsk Observatory, A.V. Voznesensky. Voznesensky combined the data Kulik had gathered with 1908 seismic data recorded at Irkutsk and concluded that:

. . . it is highly probable that the future investigator of the spot where the Khatanga [Stony Tunguska] meteorite fell will find something very similar to the meteorite crater of Arizona; . . . . The Indians of Arizona still preserve the legend that their ancestors saw a fiery chariot fall from the sky and penetrate the ground at the spot where the crater is; the present-day Tungusi people have a similar legend about a new fiery stone. . . . the search for and investigation of the Khatanga meteorite could prove a very profitable subject of study, particularly if this meteorite turned out to belong to the iron class. (J. Baxter and T. Atkins 1976)

In other words, it was thought possible that a very valuable chunk of nickel-iron might be recovered; this is why Kulik was a bit dumbfounded when he actually found the spot he had sought. The devastation was quite obvious--over two-thousand square kilometers of dense Siberian forest had been scorched and flattened. There was, however, no crater.

Kulik's find revealed that colliding space debris could do a great deal of damage yet leave little long-term detectable evidence to indicate that an impact had occurred. Some implications of this fact were recognized by a few investigators almost immediately. Astronomer C.P. Olivier, writing of Kulik's discovery for Scientific American, stated in the July 1928 issue:

In looking over this account, one has to admit that many accounts of events in old chronicles that have been laughed at as fabrications are far less miraculous than this one, of which we seem to have undoubted confirmation. Fortunately for humanity, this meteoric fall happened in a region where there were no inhabitants precisely in the affected area, but if such a thing could happen in Siberia there is no known reason why the same could not happen in the United States.

Newly discovered impact craters were big news in the early thirties; some large structures had been discovered in Australia (Henbury Craters), and British explorer James Philby was, in 1932, led to find some impressive and actually fairly recent craters in the Arabian Desert (Wabar Craters) by a guide who sang:

From Qariya strikes the sun upon the town;

Blame not the guide that vainly seeks it now,

Since the Destroying Power laid it low,

Sparing nor cotton smock nor silken gown.

That same year geologist Frank A. Melton and physicist William Schriever, both of the University of Oklahoma, finished a lengthy study of the unusual features revealed by the flying camera two years earlier. They reported their findings at a 1932 meeting of the Geological Society of America, and these were published the following year in the Journal of Geology, under the title "The Carolina 'Bays'--Are They Meteorite Scars?" Later that year (1933), Edna Muldrow captured the attention of Harper's Monthly readers with this opening paragraph:

What would happen if a comet should strike the earth? We do not like to dwell on that possibility, it is true; yet such evasion arises mainly because we are human and it is human to shun the unpleasant. So we bolster our sense of security by the assumption that what has not happened will not happen. This assumption is false. The truth is that the earth in the past has collided with heavenly bodies, and the more serious truth is that it may collide again.

After informing readers of Melton and Schriever's work, Muldrow concludes her six and a half page article, "The Comet That Struck The Carolinas," with a rather graphic "if" scenario:

If the disaster of the Carolinas should repeat itself in the vicinity of New York City, all man's handiwork extending over a great oval spreading from Long Island to Ohio, Virginia, and Lake Ontario would be completely annihilated. One-half of the people, one-third of the wealth of the United States would be completely rubbed out. The world's greatest metropolis would lie a smoking ruin, . . . . Only a few broken struts set awry and throwing lengthened shadows across sullen lagoons would survive as reminders of the solid masonry of the city . . . .

In 1937, near-Earth-asteroid Hermes, which could impart much more destructive energy into the biosphere than the global nuclear arsenal is capable of releasing, was observed to have missed Earth by less than seven hours.

By 1940, Harvard Astronomer Fred L. Whipple had adduced comet Encke as a remnant of larger parent body which had been in a short period (around 3.3 years) low inclination (3.6 - 16 degree) orbit for between five and twenty thousand years; a long present spectacle for our ancestors as the comet progressively broke up creating the still active Taurid meteor streams (F.L. Whipple 1940).

Obviously, there was, half a century ago, sufficient rational for academia to take a serious look at the plentiful body of lore which spoke of fire raining destructively from the sky. What happened? Perhaps it was the break in scholarly continuity caused by World War II; maybe the subject became virtually taboo in the wake of the well-publicized flap over the myth based theory of Immanuel Velikovsky. Regardless of why circumstances retarded the academic pursuit of understanding this fascinating and arguably important influence on human social development, recent astronomical evidence emphasizes the need to give this subject proper attention.

An interesting place to start is with an objective look at plausible scenarios which could have inspired legends such as Phaethon. Kugler argued in favor of a Sun-like meteor. A problem with using this type phenomenon to explain the origin of Phaethon's ride is the brevity of prelude to an actual impact with a large meteoroid; the object would become visible only after it entered the atmosphere, seconds before it crashed into earth or water. In several ways a close brush with an active comet provides better source material for Phaethon's ride.

Figure One illustrates the final six hours during a close approach of a comet in an Encke type orbit. In this scenario a Mediterranean view at minus six hours is sunrise and already the comet nucleus appears eleven degrees above the horizon, with a tail, shortened by perspective, pointing upward. For the next several hours the Sun seems to chase the comet as the latter increases its apparent size at an increasing rate. By minus one hour the comet has reached a maximum apparent motion to the west, eighty degrees above the eastern horizon. Here it will appear to stay for the next half hour as, in line with the Sun, the translucent coma seems to double in size. At this point Earth is within the tail of the comet perhaps producing an erie glowing sky with intense aurora and meteor shower phenomena. In the next quarter hour the coma again seems to increase by over one hundred percent as the center of this horrifying spectacle appears to move back to the east by over sixteen degrees. It is during the last fifteen minutes, as the comet reaches it's closest distance to Earth, that damaging impacts with larger fragments from the nucleus are most likely to occur.

Similarities to the Phaethon myth are obvious. The young driver with rays about his head rises early, his father, Helios, according to Lucretius (5: 397-405) and Euripides (see J. Diggle 1970), follows behind ultimately taking control of the reins after Phaethon falls from the chariot. The inexperienced charioteer balks nearly halfway across the sky and is not destined to make it to the west. He travels against the stars (incursent stellis--Ovid, Met. II: 205) before being struck by a thunderous bolt as the Earth catches fire. Helios, in grief, refuses to bring light to the world. A likely allusion to a now recognized secondary phenomenon of large impact events: aerosols blocking or attenuating solar radiation.

It is unfortunate, in terms of expediting a definitive solution, that it is not possible to simply back track the orbit of a suspect comet and thereby show that the object was close enough to Earth to produce such effects on a specific date. The small mass of comets relative to the planets plus the natural 'retro-rocket' phenomenon produced by gases jetting from the solar heated surface of these bodies renders precise calculation of past positions impossible. A credible answer to what actually inspired the Phaethon legend can only come from examining all available evidence.

Figure One also shows that different cultures around the world would witness this hypothetical yet plausible approach of the comet; however, the perspective of disparate observers would not be the same. For instance, at minus one hour for an observer on the Nile delta, the phenomena is hovering overhead, while at the mouth of the Amazon (80 degrees to the west) a disconcerting dawn is breaking. It is therefore encouraging to find stories which seem to support the witnessing of such an event embedded within the native lore of this part of the world:

The sun had risen indeed, and with a glory of the cruel fire about him that not even the eyes of the gods could endure; but he moved not. There he lay on the horizon; and when the deities sent Tlotli, their messenger, to him, with orders that he should go on upon his way, his ominous answer was, that he would never leave that place till he had destroyed and put an end to them all. Then a great fear fell upon some, while others were moved only to anger; and among the latter was one Citli, who immediately strung his bow and advanced against the glittering enemy. By quickly lowering his head the Sun avoided the first arrow shot at him; but the second and third had attained his body in quick succession, when, filled with fury, he seized the last and launched it back upon his assailant. And the brave Citli laid shaft to string nevermore, for the arrow of the sun pierced his forehead.

Then all was dismay in the assembly of the gods, and despair filled their heart, for they saw that they could not prevail against the shining one; . . . (emphasis added) (H.H. Bancroft 1886 Vol. 3 p. 61)

and along the same theme:

. . . According to the Annals of Quauhtitlan, Quetzalcoatl, when driven from Tollan, immolated himself on the shores of the eastern sea, and from his ashes rose birds with shining feathers (symbols of warrior souls mounting to the sun), while his heart became the Morning Star, wandering for eight days in the underworld before it ascended in splendour. In numerous legends Quetzalcoatl is associated with Tezcatlipoca, commonly as an antagonist; and if we may believe one tale, recounted by Mendieta, Tezcatlipoca, defeating Quetzalcoatl in ball- play (a game directly symbolic of the movements of the heavenly orbs), cast him out of the land into the east, where he encountered the sun and was burned. (emphasis added) (H.B. Alexander 1919, 1964 ed., Vol. 11 p. 68)

A strong tradition of "Sun Ages" existed among the people who passed these potentially quite valuable stories to our time; memories that relate the transitions of those eras also seem pregnant with information:

. . . "The Sun of Air," Ehcatonatiuh, closed with a furious wind, which destroyed edifices, uprooted trees, and even moved the rocks. . . . Quetzalcoatl appeared in this third Sun, teaching the way of virtue and the arts of life; but his doctrines failed to take root, so he departed toward the east, promising to return another day. With his departure "the Sun of Air" came to its end, and Tlatonatiuh, "the Sun of Fire," began, so called because it was expected that the next destruction would be by fire. (emphasis added) (ibid, p. 91)

This tradition seems to imply that Quetzalcoatl (the feathered serpent) departed to the east in the last great period of cosmic destruction. A recent palaeoecological study of lakes in the Caribbean region (D.A. Hodell, 1991) reveals a sudden onset of dry conditions about thirty-two hundred years ago, this finding adds to an already robust collection of data which suggest a global perturbation of climate around that time period (1200 - 1000 B.C.E.). It is an intriguing possibility that cultures throughout the world experienced hardships during this era due to a large input of extraterrestrial material.

As Figure Two illustrates, there would, assuming one near approach, have been several close encounters over a two hundred-year period; not all, or even another, of these rendezvous would need to be as near and hence destructive as the one hypothesized above to adversely affect Earth's climate. The reason for this is that the gravity of Earth makes our planet an efficient dust collector and in close proximity to an active comet there is plenty available to form a solar shade in the upper atmosphere which would be disruptive to the climate.

Though definitive dating of protohistoric impact events can only come from careful stratigraphic work, there are some rather strong indicators that a nasty encounter such as suggested here occurred about 1159 B.C.E. This is not an arbitrary date for it marks the beginning of a sharp decline in the annual growth of Irish bog oak which lasted almost two decades and for that reason stands out in the over seven thousand year long dendrochronological record based on this species of tree (see M.G.L. Baillie and M.A.R. Munro 1988). The middle of the twelfth century also, according to widely accepted chronologies based on eclectic sources (such as Egyptian), marks a time period of general discord. A stark specimen of pertinent tie-in is related to chapter ten in the book of Joshua, where perhaps the most widely known mention of helio-halting occurs (Joshua 10: 12-14).

Now in the line just prior to Joshua's ambitious communique to the god of Israel it is stated that:

. . . the Lord cast down great stones from heaven upon them unto Azekah, and they died; they were more who died with the hailstones than they whom the children of Israel slew with the sword. (Joshua 10: 11)

Deferring discussion of the specific nature of these "great stones," it is worth noting that this incident is recorded by Sirach, with a somewhat different connotation:

"With hailstones of mighty power He caused war to break violently upon the nation." (Ecclesiasticus 46:6)

after asking:

"Did not the sun go back by his hand? And did not one day become as two?" (Ecclesiasticus 46:4).

These seemingly minor differences should perhaps be more closely examined with regard to Joshua's reported conquests, particularly in light of recent archaeological findings. An especially valuable site for affixing a date to Joshua's campaign is the Canaanite city of Lachish (re: Joshua 10: 31-33), where time marking Egyptian artifacts have been found. Finds at this location are also quite supportive of the scenario espoused in this paper. David Ussishkin, reports in Palestine in the Bronze and Iron Ages (1985 p. 223) that at tell Lachish:

The city of Level VI was razed in a violent destruction accompanied by fire, traces of which could be detected in every spot in which its remains were uncovered. The destruction was apparently complete, and the population liquidated or driven out. Following the catastrophe, the site was abandoned and remained desolate for a long period of time.

Ussishkin dates this devastation at 1150 B.C.E.; he also paints an archaeological picture of a crushingly abrupt end:

The tragic circumstances of the city's destruction were vividly illustrated in the ruins of the Level VI building of Area S. This large public edifice seems to have been turned into living quarters during its final period of use, perhaps occupied by refugees from outside the city who fled their homes in the face of the impending disaster that was eventually to destroy the city. On the floors, sealed beneath the building debris, were found human remains that were studied by Professor Patricia Smith (Ussishkin, 1983; 116, Pl. 25:2). They include a number of bones of an adult female aged 40-50 and of an 8-year-old child, as well as two skeletons, one of a child aged 2-3 years and one of an infant of 6-8 months. Professor Smith reported that according to the position of these skeletons on the floor, 'the child had either been thrown down on its face, or possibly died while crawling along the ground . . . . the infant was thrown or fell onto the ground'. Apparently, these children were trapped and crushed under falling debris while trying to crawl out from under it. According to Professor Smith, the good state of skeletal preservation suggests that they were covered by the debris shortly after death.

Several artifacts directly traceable to Ramses III have been recovered from Level VI; perhaps, in light of a broader view of possible events, the early criticism heaped upon the Egyptian epic poetry of this period was not well-founded. As an example, Wilson, after lambasting the poetic excesses in the Medinet Habu account of the second Libyan war, offers this free translation of the enemy's flight before the Pharaoh:

. . . The pupils of their eyes squinted so that they could not see. The roads were blocked and stopped up before them, while the world was a whirlwind behind them to carry off their people. Their weapons had fallen from their hands, and their hearts knew no rest . . . . They were straggling trembling and sweating. The uraeus-serpent which is upon the head of the Sun of Egypt (Pharaoh) was against them, so that the great heat of (the war-goddess) Sekhmet permeated their hearts and their bones were burned up within their bodies. The stars of the seshed-constellation were frightful in pursuit of them, while the land (of Egypt) was glad and rejoiced at the sight of his valor: Ramses III. (Wilson, J.A. 1928/29 p. 27)

The belief that the Pharaoh magically controlled celestial events is well attested to in Egyptian literature. In fact the personage of these fleshy gods was often directly equated with a cosmic object (see G. A. Wainwright 1938). For instance R. O. Faulkner (1969) translates sections 1454-55 in utterance 570 of the Pyramid Texts:

Do not break up the ground, O you arms of mine which lift up the sky as Shu; my bones are iron and my limbs are the Imperishable Stars.

I am a star which illumines the sky, I mount up to the god that I may be protected, for the sky will not be devoid of me and this earth will not be devoid of me for ever.

It is with this larger than life royal identity that the following Chinese account should be viewed.

King Wan dreamt that he was clothed with the sun and moon. . . . In the first month of spring, on the 6th day, the five planets had a conjunction in Fang. . . . The conjunctions of the five planets in Fang brightens all within the four seas.'

When king Wan was dead, his eldest son Fa ruled in his stead. . . . When he [Fa] was crossing the river at the ford of Mang, in the middle of the stream, a white fish leaped into the king's boat. The king stooped down and took it up. It was 3 cubits long, and under its eyes were red lines which formed the characters--'Chow may be smitten.' The king wrote over them the character for 'dynasty,' and the words disappeared. After this he burned the fish in sacrifice, and announced the event to Heaven. Lo! fire came down from heaven, and rested over Wang uh, gradually floating away into a red bird, with a stalk of grain in its beak.

If this collection of mixed metaphors was the sole record of end times for the Shang dynasty it would lend little help to support the suppositions of this paper; however it is not, and when the unusual boat ride of Fa is considered in context with other Chinese lore speaking of this period (approx. 1150 B.C.E.) it becomes quite intriguing. The above passage comes from The Annals of the Bamboo Book (ch. 4, part 5) and is devoted to King Woo (named Fa) who, with his father King Wan is considered co-founder of the Chow dynasty. From the conjunction of five planets in Fang to the end of the Shang dynasty the Bamboo Book records a span of two decades. This "warring period" (given as 1148-1122 B.C.E. by N. Koss 1979) is the subject of a later historical novel (Feng-Shen Yen-I) which contends that the war between Shang and Chow groups was not caused by human factors but by the predestined investiture of the gods (see S. H. Chang 1990 pp. 169-70). In the Shoo King (book of history) there are several mentions of heaven sending down calamities during this time period. The explanation for these adversities is that heaven was showing displeasure with the Shang ruler, Te-sin (named Show), and it is expressly stated of Fa that:

"Reverently obeying the determinate counsel of Heaven, I pursue my punitive work to the east, . . ." (Shoo King, Part 5, Book 3, p. 7).

In the Great Declaration, also in the Shoo King (Part 5, Book 1, Part 2-8.9), Fa states:

. . . My military prowess is displayed, and I enter his territories, to take the wicked tyrant. My punishment of evil will be shown more glorious than that of T'ang.

The last line has an important connotation, for turning to the scholarly notes of James Legge concerning the Punitive Expedition of Yin (Shoo King, Part 3, Book 4) Legge indicates that:

. . . at last, B.C. 1765, after many misgivings, T'ang took the field against his sovereign. There could be no doubt as to the result. Heaven and earth combined with men to show their detestation of the tyrant. Two suns fought in the sky. The earth shook. Mountains were moved from their strong foundations. Rivers were dried up. Kee was routed, and fled south to Ts'aou, . . .

The known distribution of debris associated with comet Encke makes earlier events, such as alluded to here, quite plausible, however for now this passage serves only to show that a cosmic interpretation of Fa's conquest is not ad hoc. Also, before discussing the interesting aspects of Fa's fish story, it is pertinent to note that the Annals of the Bamboo Book record that in the forty-eighth year of Show's (the Shang tyrant) reign, two suns appeared together and the E goat was seen. Legge notes that this E goat "was a prodigious thing, 'a spirit-like animal,'--variously described." This is almost certainly a reference to the appearance of a comet.

In the Appendix to the Great Declaration there is again mention of Fa crossing what was probably at some point in this legend's history a cosmic river:

As the prince Fa had got to the middle of the stream in his boat, a white fish entered it. The king knelt down and took it up. He then went on the bank, and burned it, in sacrifice to Heaven. All the dukes said, "This is auspicious!"

On the fifth day there was a ball of fire which descended from above, till it came to the king's house, and there dissolved into a crow. Its colour was red . . .

Remarkably, this incredible sounding tale fits well with a Chinese view of a comet approaching as postulated above.

The plain of Honan is about eighty degrees east of the Nile delta so for an observer located in that part of the world the hypothetical comet would have come into view over five hours earlier than it would for a counterpart located in the Mediterranean. Looking at Figure One again, it can be seen that the comet, or "white fish," would appear to move closer to the sun, or "solar barge," throughout the morning. By mid-afternoon (minus 2 to 3 hours) the comet, rapidly growing in apparent size, would seem to be merging with the sun. At minus one hour the fieriest sunset imaginable would begin, followed forty-five minutes later by the dramatically sudden eruption of a "ball of fire" which in the span of fifteen minutes, would have moved the wrong way into the night horizon where it would, in a phoenix like fashion, rise again, rapidly losing apparent size as it sped away from Earth into the star peppered black void perhaps taking on the appearance of a red bird as the object's aspect became smaller and so returned less sunlight to an atmosphere recently loaded with comet dust.

As mentioned above, without detailed groundwork, no definitive conclusion regarding the magnitude or timing of a past impact event can be put forth. It is, however, possible to be relatively secure in asserting that encounters disruptive to the environment have occurred since the end of the Pleistocene some twelve-thousand years ago. Indeed the Younger Dryas cold oscillation, which is contemporary with the Pleistocene/Holocene transition as well as the American and perhaps Euro/Asian megafauna extinction episode, may have been caused by external input. The newly recognized large population of near-Earth-objects provides a sound astronomically based argument for a much higher frequency of impact events than was estimated two decades ago. Also, an improved understanding of phenomena associated with cosmic collisions supplies credibility to certain ancient assertions which had seemed completely illogical. A good example of generally misunderstood lore can be found in Book V of the Sibylline oracles. H.N. Bate (1918) translates lines 298-300:

And then in his anger the immortal God who dwells on high shall hurl from the sky a fiery bolt on the head of the unholy: and summer shall change to winter in that day. (emphasis added)

Bate notes that Book VIII contains a parallel passage with winter being changed to summer--fortunately he did not feel compelled to "correct" the lines above as others have. For example:

And then the imperishable God who dwells in the sky in anger will cast a lightning bolt from heaven against the power of the impious. Instead of winter there will be summer on that day. (emphasis added)

This comes from Old Testament pseudepigrapha (vol. 1) published in 1983. Not only has the passage been rationalized (If God throws down fire it should get hotter, right?), but, a fiery bolt now has become a lightning bolt.

Evidence of impact-induced cold is valuable in gauging how energetic a past fall was. Based on nuclear winter studies, a cosmic collision would need to impart at least the energy equivalent of a thousand megatons TNT into the environment to produce such an effect.

A number of cultures retained stories of impact-induced winter. Most telling of all such lore this author has read are these amazingly informative tales of the Yakuts: [note that the CH in brackets below is printed in the reference as a "c" with a diacritic "v"]

[ch]olbon . . . is said to be "the daughter of the Devil and to have had a tail in the early days". If it approaches the earth, it means destruction, storm and frost, even in the summer; . . .

[ch]olbon, the daughter of the Devil is a beautiful girl . . . she is the bride and the sweetheart of Satan's son-- ürgel (Pleiades). When these two stars come close to one another, it is a bad omen; their eager quivering, their discontinuous panting cause great disasters: storms, blizzards, gales. When they unite, fathom deep snow will fall even in the summer, and all living beings, men, animals and trees will perish . . . " (L. Mandoki, 1968, p. 489)

Both folk memories were recorded by ethnographer V.L. Serosevsky, the first in 1877, the next in 1885. The Yakuts identified Venus as [ch]olbon; however, as a later student of this culture, G.V. Ksenofontov, observed:

"The Yakuts have two words for the "star": sulus and [ch]olbon. The first means simply "star", the second refers to stars that change their place in the sky, sometimes appearing and disappearing. Nowadays, however, it no longer--or very seldom--refers to other planets than Venus and has almost become its name. Yet, as we have seen, in legends also other "[ch]olbons" (i.e. planets) are mentioned. (ibid, p. 490)

What is remarkable about these particular tales is the conjunction of several pieces of information. The lines contend that a comet ([ch]olbon with a tail) came close enough to influence weather on Earth--i.e. deadly storms, frost and deep snow in summer. Also, it is implied that this is most likely to occur if the comet appears close to the Pleiades. In short, these legends accurately describe what can now be inferred from astronomical data on comet Encke and the ring of debris its progenitor strew about the Sun.

Of particular interest with regard to external perturbation of climate is an artifact unearthed in 1934, the Ch'u Silk Manuscript . This document, which dates from 500-400 B.C.E., is primarily astrological in nature. Because several of the characters painted on this silk have no directly traceable descendants translation is difficult, making it preferable to take into account more than a singular attempt at extracting meaning from the text. Pertinent is Jao Tsung-yi's interpretation of lines B. 1-1 to 2-30 which relate irregularities of a "Broom Star" (comet):

Sometimes the sun and moon are not in their constant course. This is called Ying (gaining) and Ch'u (retreating). Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter have . . . and have their own regular way. When the order of the sun, the moon, and the heavenly bodies is disturbed, gaining and retreating . . . and the plants would become erratic . . . ominous happenings. Heaven and earth will cause disasters(?). The T'ien-p'ou star [ ] will tremble and fall down in . . . direction. Then, the mountains and hillocks . . . there will be streams and floods. Such (phenomena) are (seen) in the Po-po [ ]. (Jao Tsung-yi, 1972, pp. 118-119)

A more raw rendering of these lines is provided by Noel Barnard:

. . . (particle) . . . . . . (= verb?) the sun, the moon thence will gain and retreat, and will not obtain its . . . . Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter . . . . (= not?) have . . . . (- their?) regularity. When the Sun, the Moon, the Stars, and the Constellations confuse and . . . . (= muddle?) their movements, the [process of] gaining and retreating . . . . (= becomes muddled?) . . . . [thus] the grasses and the trees will lack regularity [of growth?] . . . . ; . . . . [ . . . . ] . . . . . . . . , Heaven and Earth will . . . . (- verb?). The T'ien-p'ou will be about to move and to descend to its . . . . region. The Hills and the Plains - their . . . . (- verb?) have depth (?) their (?) . . . . ; this is known as . . . . . (N. Barnard, 1973, Part 2, p. 207)

Clearly, in the light of contemporary knowledge, it is not outrageous to suppose that humanity learned to dread comets as a consequence of direct experience with destructive phenomena engendered by actual encounters with the immediate environment of these flamboyant cosmic interlopers (see V. Clube and B. Napier, 1990). Indeed, early attempts to predict this infrequent but periodically recurring phenomenon were quite likely the impetus which led to the widespread and ultimately formalized belief that star positions could directly influence events on Earth. Observed comet phenomena such as fragmentation, where a comet appears to produce one or more offspring, can explain the origin of odd notions like Athena being born fully formed from the head of Zeus. That these objects were feared and worshiped as omnipotent, judgmental gods of the sky is understandable and seems attested to in several ancient texts. For instance in Ezekiel 1:27-28 it is stated that:

. . . upon the throne, a form in human likeness. I saw what might have been brass glowing like fire in a furnace from the waist upwards; and from the waist downwards

I saw what looked like fire with encircling radiance. Like a rainbow in the clouds on a rainy day was the sight of that encircling radiance; it was like the appearance of the glory of the Lord.

When I saw this I threw myself on my face, . . . (New English Bible)

A similar description of celestial war-lord can be found in the Drona Parva of the Mahabharata:

Many are the blazing and terrible forms of this God that men speak of and worship in the world. Many also are the names, of truthful import, of this Deity in all the worlds. Those names are founded upon his supremacy, his omnipotence, and his acts . . . [several names and attributes are given]. . . Downwards fiery, and half the body that is auspiciousness is the moon. His auspiciousness is the moon. So also half his soul is fire and half the moon. (P.C. Roy 1973 ed., Vol. 6, pp. 486- 487)

That these stories are rooted in comet lore is suggested by content; for example, in the above-mentioned Parva it is said of the preceptor that:

. . . When Drona, of sure aim, thus proceeded, the earth trembled violently. Fierce winds began to blow, inspiring the (hostile) ranks with fear. Large meteors fell, seemingly issuing out of the sun, blazing fiercely as they fell and foreboding great terrors. (ibid. p. 452)

Drona's offspring was also quite formidable:

. . . the preceptor's son, that slayer of hostile heroes, inspired with mantras a blazing shaft possessed of the effulgence of a smokeless fire, and let it off on all sides, filled with rage. Dense showers of arrows then issued from it in the welkin. Endued with fiery flames, those arrows encompassed Partha on all sides. Meteors flashed down from the firmament. A thick gloom suddenly shrouded the (Pandava) host. All the points of the compass also were enveloped by that darkness . . . Inauspicious winds began to blow. The sun himself no longer gave any heat . . . Clouds roared in the welkin, showering blood . . . The very elements seemed to be perturbed. The sun seemed to turn. The universe, scorched with heat, seemed to be in a fever. The elephants and other creatures of the land, scorched by the energy of that weapon, ran in fright, breathing heavily and desirous of protection against that terrible force. The very waters heated, the creatures residing in that element, O Bharata, became exceedingly uneasy and seemed to burn. (ibid. p. 481)

The form perceived by Ezekiel, as well, seems capable of wreaking havoc on a grand scale:

. . . says the Lord God, my wrath will boil over. In my jealousy and in the heat of my anger I swear that on that day there shall be a great earthquake throughout the land of Israel. The fish in the sea and the birds in the air, the wild animals and all reptiles that move on the ground, all mankind on the face of the earth, all shall be shaken before me. Mountains shall be torn up, the terraced hills collapse, and every wall crash to the ground. I will summon universal terror against Gog, says the Lord God, and his men shall turn their swords against one another. I will bring him to judgement with pestilence and bloodshed; I will pour down teeming rain, hailstones hard as rock, and fire and brimstone, upon him, upon his squadrons, upon the whole concourse of peoples with him. Thus will I prove myself great and holy and make myself known to many nations; they shall know that I am the Lord. (New English Bible, Ezekiel 38:19-23)

To conclude, the above conveys a need for students of the past to begin searching specifically for data which can facilitate an accurate understanding of the effect this long underrated and thus virtually neglected natural phenomenon has had upon human social development

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